The Routine Activities Theory Essay

1112 words - 4 pages

There are many definitions to theory. According to Akers, “theories are tentative answers to the commonly asked questions about events and behavior.” Theory is a set of interconnected statements that explain how two or more things are related, based upon a confirmed hypotheses and established multiple times by disconnected groups of researchers.
There are six elements that make a theory sound. These elements are scientific criteria provide whether or not the theories are scientific. The most important of these elements is empirical validity, which uses evidence to confirm or disprove a theory and have criteria for interpreting data as factual, irregular or unrelated. The other major elements include internal logical consistency, scope and parsimony, testability, and usefulness and policy implication. A theory must be logically consistent. In order to be so, it must have clearly defined concepts, have logically stated and internally consistent propositions. If a theory contains pointless ideas or is inconsistent, it can't really explain anything. Scope refers to the assortment of events that it propositions to explain.
Routine Activities Theory includes elements from deterrence and rational choice theories. Routine Activity Theory provides a simple and influential imminent into the sources of crime problems. The main idea is that in the lack of valuable controls, offenders will prey upon attractive targets. In order for crime to occur, a motivated offender must come in contact directly or indirectly with a target. The target is a thing or an object if it is a property crime. The target is a person if it is a personal crime. If a target is never in the same place as a motivated offender, the target can never be a victim of crime. Also, there are formal or informal guardians whose existence can stop crime. If the guardians are absent, or present but ineffective, crime is possible.
Routine Activities Theory has four basic elements, time, place, objects, and persons. These elements were place into three main categories of variables. These variables “increase of decrease the likelihood that persons will be victims of ‘direct contact’ predatory crime” (35). These categories are motivated offenders, suitable targets, and capable guardians. “the main proposition of this theory is that the rate of criminal victimization is increased when there is a ‘convergence in space and time of the three minimal elements of direct contact predatory violations’ that is, the likelihood of crime increases when there are one or more persons present who are motivated to commit a crime, a suitable target or potential victim is available, and the absence of formal or informal guardians who could deter the potential offender.” (put into own words.)
The founders, Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felson defined Routine activities as ‘“recurrent and prevalent activities that provide for basic population and individual needs… formalized work, as well as the provision of standard...

Find Another Essay On The Routine Activities Theory

Causes of Crime Essay

1855 words - 7 pages There are various speculations about the contributing factors or elements that cause an individual to commit crime. Theorists have searched and analyzed for decades, if not centuries to find concrete reasoning or justification for the root or cause as it pertains to criminal behavior. In this essay, I will describe the basic elements of the social control theory and the routine activities theory. I will compare and contrast the

Why Rob Grandma Essay

839 words - 4 pages abuse, the most comprehensive theory is routine activities theory. The first theory to analyze as it related to elderly abuse is Homans’s social exchange theory. This theory proposes that people are dependent upon one another in order to receive benefits that they can’t obtain elsewhere (Lawler, 2001). A dependent relationship between an offender and an elderly victim may then be the cause of the criminal act if the relationship

Routine Activity Theory and Rational Choice Theory

1396 words - 6 pages The study of criminology is why individuals commit crimes and why they behave in certain situations. When you understand why someone might commit a crime, you can come up with ways to prevent or control the crime. There are several different theories in criminology, in this paper I will be discussing Routine Activity Theory and Rational Choice theory. I will be comparing and contrasting as well between the two of these theories. Routine

Classical and Rational Theory

962 words - 4 pages explained by both the lifestyle theory, as well as, the routine theory. These individuals engage in routine activities that place them at greater risk. This can be seem by young people who live lifestyles that frequent dangerous places and keep them out longer making them more susceptible to victimization. All, these theories contribute to the paradigm, but the fact still remains that the person contains rational thought and free will. This free will

Theories of Victimization

1220 words - 5 pages ).Routine activities theory reflects on three different variables: the availability of suitable targets, the absence of guardians, and the presence of motivated offenders. Routine activities theory explains that there is a pool of motivated offenders and these offenders will take advantage of unguarded, suitable targets. Due to routine activities, the victim is making one's self-available for the criminal act. A strength to this theory is it "can

Sociological Theories

1788 words - 7 pages choice theory, and the routine activities theory. The rational choice theory is a good choice in this situation because it really sums up Martha's situation well. Martha could have weighed the situation based or her personal needs; the fact that she didn't want to lose her money and figured their was little to no chance that she would get caught and even if would given `celebrity' status. She figured there was little risk involved and went for

Theory Paper

753 words - 4 pages "snitching" doesn't occur. Drug dealers function in an identical way; they tend to "deal" where there is an inconsiderable amount of constabularies. The routine activities theory also explains crime in a similar way. Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felson observed crime and victimization as part of a persons daily lifestyle, and interactions. They believed it takes three specific components together for crime to take place; a driven transgressor, a

Aspects of Criminology

1325 words - 6 pages is being sentenced. Rational choice theory holds that criminality is the result of conscious choice. There are two variations of this theory: routine activities theory and situational theory. Routine activities theory suggests that lifestyles contribute significantly to the volume and type of crime found in any society. Situational choice theory views criminal behavior as a function of choices and decisions made within a context of a situational

Victimization Theories

1395 words - 6 pages the wrong time" (98). This theory states that the behavior of the victim has very little influence over the criminal act (106). This "places the focus of crime on deviant places. It shows why people with conventional lifestyles become crime victims" (106).The Routine activities theory reflects on three different variables. The first is the availability of suitable targets, the absence of guardians, and the presence of motivated offenders (106

Criminological Theories

1978 words - 8 pages socio economic status, geographical location, culture and other lifestyle factors. More specifically, Messner and Blau (1987) used routine activities theory to test the relationship between the indicators of leisure activities and the rate of serious crimes. They discussed two types of leisure actives, the first being a household pastime, which primarily focused on television watching. The second type was a non-household leisure event which was

The Good and Bad of R.A.T. Theory

2102 words - 8 pages The Good and Bad of R.A.T. Theory. Why do people commit crime? It depends on who you ask and how you look at it, also what you define crime as. There are many theories out there about why people commit crime. One of these theories is Routine Activities Theory. Routine activities theory was first articulated in a series of papers by Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felson. Crime and victimization involve the intersection of three

Similar Essays

Routine Activities Theory Essay

1742 words - 7 pages theory must be able to be tested by objective, repeatable evidence, but not against empirical findings. In order to assess the value of the theory, its usefulness for effective policy implications are evaluated. (Akers, 2009, p. 5-11) Routine Activities Theory includes elements from deterrence and rational choice theories. Routine Activity Theory provides a simple and influential imminent into the sources of crime problems. This theory states that

Routine Activities Theory Essay

2493 words - 10 pages paper will attempt to explain the reasons for the genocide that took place in Srebrenica in 1995 through the routine activities theory developed by Cohen and Felson in1997. The paper will be divided into three parts. The first one will explain the crime, the second one will explain what the theory consists of, and the third will analyze how this particular theory explains the Srebrenica genocide. Genocide in Srebrenica In order to understand

Child Abuse: Routine Activities Theory Essay

896 words - 4 pages /child-physical-abuse.html Inkling for Web. (n.d.). Retrieved from Klevens, J., Duque, L., & Ramirez, C. (2002). The Victim-Perpetrator Overlap and Routine Activities: Results From a Cross-Sectional Study in Bogotá, Colombia. Journal Of Interpersonal Violence, 17(2), 206. Long-term physical and mental health consequences of childhood physical

A Discussion On Routine Activities Theory

1005 words - 5 pages In a study published in 2011, the Crime Prevention Division of the Department of Attorney General and Justice defined routine activities theory as “a crime that occurs when the an accessible target, the absence of capable guardians that could intervene, and the presence of a motivated offender come together in any given space and time” (Routine activities theory, 2011). Although this report was published in New South Wales, Australia, routine