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The Selection And Optimization Of Compound Feed Additives For Transport Stress Resistance

3688 words - 15 pages

1. Introduction
Transport stress refers to the body instinct of adaptations and defensive reaction under the comprehensive function of the stressor in the transit such as the fasting, limit of feeding, environmental change, turbulence and psychological pressure stress. It is one of the important factors affecting the animal production performance before slaughter[1]. As phase feeding and functional raised pattern promotion, around the world the animal deaths and the economic loss caused by the transportation each year is very amazing[2]. Therefore, scientific intervention is of great significance to protect animal health, according to the change of physiology and related indicators of animals after transport stress. Anti-stress feed additives is a relief and control to stress syndrome, caused by the stressor. It can improve the feed conversion efficiency of nutrients and protein, reduce the stress response[4]. According to the physiological and biochemical indicators of change in livestock and poultry after the transport stress, the targeted use of additives can effectively reduce the loss brought by transportation stress[5].
As the most important antioxidant substances in the extracellular fluid, vitamin C protects biological membrane against peroxide damage through reducing reactive oxide species in tissue. Through the hypothalamus - pituitary - adrenal axis vitamin C can adjust the secretion of cortisone and thyroid hormone, enhance the body's immune function, and improve the anti-stress ability. Vitamin C can significantly improve meat quality of the transportation stress broiler chickens, such as reducing drip loss, glycogen contentand so on[47]. That Vitamin E protects cell membranes and resists lipid peroxidation caused by free radicals, makes more cells maintain normal function in stress. Vitamin E can maintain the content of animals in stress serum cortisol, thyroid hormone and CPK relatively stable, so as to reduce the metabolic disorder and the growth performance degradation caused by imbalances of serum hormone or enzyme content [44].γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA) has excellent anti-stress effect. It inhibits the secretion of adrenal cortical hormone releasing hormone (CTH) by regulating the hypothalamus - pituitary - adrenal (HPA) axis, eventually reduces the concentration of the adrenal cortex hormone (ACTH) and improves the body immunity. In addition, GABA can inhibit the integration role of brainstem respiratory center and slow animals’ respiratory rate down, especially when they are in heat stress, to maintain normal adjustment function of the center of the body[45].In heat stress, animals hyperventilate and the CO2 discharge of body is excessive. That results in the decrease of blood H+ and HCO3- concentration, the increase of blood pH value and respiratory alkalosis. Carbonate added can make blood HCO3- concentration stable and reduce heat stress. In heat stress, due to the production increase of mineralocorticoid, the reabsorption...

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