This essay aims to critically evaluate, compare, contrast and criticize, and integrate theories, strategies and skills from the Humanist, Psychodynamic and Behaviourist perspective. This essay will discuss Maslow, Rogers’, Freudian and Skinner’s approaches to understand how counselling theories may be used by teachers and other staff for supporting children and young people in terms of their social and emotional well-being within the educational context, and the factors that influence their use. Based on the research evidence, this essay will discuss whether there is a need to support children in schools in these ways.
Social and emotional wellbeing is one of the important areas of learning and development and it plays an important role in early personal development. It involves helping and supporting children to develop a positive sense of themselves and others (DfES 2012, p69). In addition to this, children and young people need to feel securely attached and become socially competent. Early childhood practitioners have an important task of ensuring that children are equipped to live with and relate easily to other people. The children should be able to manage strong feelings such as frustration, anger and anxiety and be able to develop high self-esteem, self-efficacy and strong self-identity. A coordination of social and emotional development is critical to leading a purposeful and fulfilling life. Children’s intellectual development is inseparable from their social and emotional development (Dowling, 2011). Children's and young people’s social and emotional wellbeing is influenced by a range of factors, such as, parenting styles that cause bad behaviour, family dysfunction and sibling rivalry which lead to learning and motivational problems within the educational setting (Dowling, 2011).
Furthermore, personal, social and emotional development is one of the four broad areas of special educational needs outlined in the SEN Code of Practice (SEN Code of Practice, 2013:69). It is emphasised that the early years of the child are important for personal, emotional and social development (DfES, 2009). Some of the behavioural problems are distressed behaviour in which children may not be able to control their emotions. They may scream or cry or become aggressive. Others may seek attention by negative behaviour. Attention-deficit behaviour and sleeplessness are other problems young children face, in which they become fidgety, unable to concentrate and do not sleep well. Others may show depressed behaviour with signs of constant anxiety and withdrawal (Dowling 2011, p128). Teachers must work closely with parents to listen to their views to know children’s behaviour through previous experiences. This will help to provide opportunities to develop the social and emotional development (Code of Practice, 2013).
The early year’s foundation stage recognizes that a secure initial attachment is of fundamental importance and underpins all further...