The Social Person Era Seminal Works

1390 words - 6 pages

In the 1920’s, the central theme was Scientific Management. The ideas of Behavioralism in management were introduced by social psychologists and sociologists. The scientific management era functioned as a logical link to the developing approach to management era.
The Hawthorne studies brought the human relations effort to the forefront and led to the theme of the social person. Over many years the behavioral approach to management grew a little bit at a time. Theorists, who advocate the behavioral approach to management, stressed that an individual in organize activity deserved to be the main attention of focus. These sociologists and psychologists felt that management’s success largely depended on the manager’s skills and abilities to work with individuals and also understand those which have a diversity of aspirations, needs, backgrounds, and perceptions. The advancement of this approach from the human relations movement to modern organizational behavior has had a great effect and influence on the theory and practice of management. The human relations movement was a concentrated effort among theorists to make sure that managers were more sensitive to their worker’s needs. This practice came into existence as a result of special circumstances that took place during the first part of the 20th century. Scientific management during the social person era was supported by three very different influences; the Hawthorne studies, the threat of unionization, and the philosophy of industrial humanism.
The Hawthorne Studies
Behavioral scientists in the 20th century started to conduct studies concerning behavior related to the job. Instead of studying methods, tools and worker techniques that the theorists used in the scientific management era, behavioral scientist focused their attention on people. Practical behavioral research such as the famous Hawthorne studies stimulated management’s focus towards the psychological and sociological changing aspects of the workplace (Johnsey, 2011).
Elton Mayo, Industrial Management Professor at Harvard Business School and Fritz J. Roethlisberger in the 1920’s began a study of worker behavior at Western Electric, located outside of Chicago. The study took a total of nine years to complete (Johnsey, 2011). The experiments were done to study the effects that increase lighting had on employee production. The aim of the study was to see how well the workers’ productivity improved based upon additional illumination of light within the work areas inside the factory (Johnsey, 2011.). Initially the studies showed that with more illumination of the work areas production of the workers improved as the levels of the lightning within the plant increased. When the study was repeated the results showed that when the lights within the factory were decreased the workers production still continued to increase. When other variables were used as part of the study there was also found that worker productivity increased even when...

Find Another Essay On The Social Person Era Seminal Works

Were the 1920's an era of social and cultural rebellion?

724 words - 3 pages wanted to show their capability at making decisions for themselves. (Leuchtenburg)One may argue that the 1920's was not an era of social and cultural rebellion, and bring up the opinion that the dresses the flappers wore were efforts to save money. (Shannon) This is possible, but in order to feel completely at ease at wearing what would have been considered (only a decade earlier) an outrageous outfit, the women would have had to rebel. One might

Soft Power Revolution: An Analysis of Social Media and Non-Violent Activism in the New Era

1583 words - 6 pages trying to contain the spread of revolution.” Nye asserts that “the basic building blocks of world politics are being transformed by the new technology. If we focus solely on the hard power of nation-states, we will miss the new reality” (Nye, 2003, p. 216). The 21st century and the digital age has shown that soft power is the method of revolution for this era. “Given social media, no leader is any longer able to ignore his people” (H.R

Were 1920's America an era of social and cultural rebellion or was it the result of mere exaggeration of the press?

2027 words - 8 pages The 1920's: Era of Social and Cultural Rebellion?Americans have never been shy about attaching labels to their history,and frequently they do so to characterize particular years or decades intheir distant or recent past. It is doubtful, however, that any period in ournation's history has received as many catchy appellations as has thedecade of the 1920's... "the Jazz Age," "the Roaring Twenties," "the drydecade," "the prosperity decade," "the

Africa Fall Apart Essay on Comparison between the book "Things Fall Apart" by Chinua Achebe and the actual time period. Compares Social Structure, political and other aspects of Pre-Mordern Era...

1075 words - 4 pages consisted of small villages rather than cities and did not have a solid form of government but rather a local, tribal government each with their own language. The text Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe seems to remain true in its depiction of Government and religious control, Laws, Social Structure, Labor and Economics.During the 1800's when the British started their massive invasion of Africa by sending out military force combined with educated

Compare the theme of a young person growing up in two or more literary works you have studied

795 words - 3 pages his life on the street, Rob has to commit to Laura and Holden loses his barrier keeping him separate from the surrounding world.In "The Catcher in the Rye", growing up is an issue throughout the novel and it is largely focused on Holden's surviving to adulthood. In the other novels, growing up is the conclusion, the solution. Alex starts dreaming of a son and chooses that over his new gang. Rob gets Laura back and puts his fears of losing her some day aside. In the end, no matter how badly the characters tried to resist it, they all grew up. It marked a start of a new era for them, and it seems like it was a good thing in the end.

Hildegard Peplau Theory of Interpersonal Relations

2232 words - 9 pages paternalistic family and a paternalistic society. She entered the nursing profession in Pottstown Pennsylvania, where she earned the diploma in nursing. Nursing education during her era was characterized with autonomous, nursing-controlled nightingale era and schools were controlled by hospitals. Women in nursing were seen as the source of cheap or free labor. She worked in the operating room supervision as a fresh graduate, and later moved to New York

Overview of Different Theories of Motivation

3343 words - 13 pages moved to reduce.” (Adams & Freedman, 1976) Victor Vroom published seminal works on his equity theory which were seminal papers. These papers have been taken down as knowledge and have been used to further motivational hypothesis. Vrooms Expectancy Theory is based on the idea that the idea of rewards is not enough to motivate someone. Vroom states that a person needs to also possess the idea that they can reasonably obtain the goal. This theory

DNA Testing

1604 words - 6 pages The criminal justice system is not perfect. Throughout the process there can be many errors that can result in the incarceration of an innocent person. There are examples of this in the case of Gerald Wayne Davis. Faulty eyewitness testimony and double jeopardy are two of errors that will be reviewed in this case. The focus is the use of unreliable scientific evidence. In the past non-DNA testing of evidence was use to prove guilt or innocence

German Expressionism and Dadaism

912 words - 4 pages German Expressionism and Dadaism Introduction Revolutionary forms of art have dominated much of Germany, apparently as a reaction to the First World War. The era in which the First World War took place – throughout the 1910s, featured artists coming together against what they think the pointless aggression said major conflict brought. German artists, in particular, protested against the social structures prevalent during the 1910s, within

Learning with Technology

2322 words - 9 pages development through cooperative learning” (Ramli, 2010). Many psychologists have discussed the benefits of social interaction to learning. As Kim and Baylor point out in their article, A Social-Cognitive Framework for Pedagogical Agents as Learning Companions, “Teaching and learning are highly social activities. Seminal psychologists such as Vygotsky, Piaget, and Bandura have theorized that social interaction is a key mechanism in the process of

Reaction Paper 1, William James

874 words - 4 pages characteristics (the person’s phenotype).” (Sue, Sue & Sue, 2006) It is possible for a person to inherit a psychological problem from a parent, grandparent, or even an ancestor. Due to the Human Genome Project it was also found out that “While single cells have been found to be responsible for a few diseases, most diseases are the result of many genes interacting with hormones, electrical signals, and nutrient supplies internally plus physical and social

Similar Essays

The Era Of Social Reform Essay

1570 words - 6 pages The Industrial Revolution was a period of in which fundamental changes occurred in agriculture, factories, mining, transportation, machinery, economic policies, and in the social structure of England. Industrialization began in Great Britain and it was a major turning point in history. It changed the way countries produced its goods. England turned into an agricultural society to an industry and manufacturing society. During this era, there was

3 Works Of Art From The Baroque Era

1230 words - 5 pages Unit 4 Individual Project5/27/05For this essay I have chosen three works of art from chapter 20. These works of art are from the Baroque era. The first painting is titled The Calling of St. Matthew and was done between 1599 and 1602 by Michelangelo Merisi Da. I have also chosen a painting by Rembrandt van Rijn called Resurrection of Christ done between 1635 and 1639. The last piece of art I selected is a Landscape with Flight into Egypt

The Antebellum Era: Major Social Reform Movements

1222 words - 5 pages The antebellum period was full of social reform movements based on the urge to eradicate evil and improve human conditions in society. Despite the attempt to deal with a wide variety of reforms to provide positive changes to society these reform movements were met with varying degrees of success. This essay will focus on five of the major social reform movements of that era discussing their accomplishments, failures and impacts on America as a

History Of Ghosts During The Shakespearian Era And How They're Incorporated In His Works.

2772 words - 11 pages felt that a ghost could be a hallucination, a specter seen as a portent, a spirit of a dead person returned to perform some deed left undone in life, a spirit of a dead person returned from the grave or from purgatory by divine permission, which was the Catholic position, or an angel disguised as a dead person, or a devil disguised as a dead person to tempt a living relative into eternal damnation, the Protestant position. Shakespeare used the fear