The Solubility Curve Of Potassium Nitrate Experiment Report

2378 words - 10 pages

Purpose:

Our purpose here to determine the affects of temperature on potassium nitrate's solubility in water.

Materials Used in the Experiment:

Latex gloves
Laboratory coat
Safety goggles
Thermometer
Stir rod
Test tubes
Beaker
Weighing dish
Hot plate
Potassium nitrate
Distilled water

Description of the Object of the Experiment

Potassium Nitrate:
The chemical compound potassium nitrate is a naturally occurring mineral source of nitrogen. It is a nitrate with chemical formula KNO3.
Its common names include saltpetre (from Medieval Latin sal petrae: "stone salt" or possibly "Salt of Petra"), American English salt peter, Nitrate of potash and nitre. The name salt peter is also applied to ...view middle of the document...

Today, most potassium nitrate comes from the vast deposits of sodium nitrate (NaNO3, nitratine) in the Chilean deserts. The sodium nitrate is purified and then reacted in solution with potassium chloride (KCl, sylvite), from which the less-soluble potassium nitrate is precipitated out.
In England, the privilege of manufacturing explosives had been in the hands of the family of John Evelyn, the celebrated diarist, as a crown monopoly since before 1588.

Applications:
One of the most useful applications of potassium nitrate is in the production of nitric acid, by adding concentrated sulfuric acid to an aqueous solution of potassium nitrate, yielding nitric acid and potassium sulfate which are separated through fractional distillation.
Potassium nitrate is also used as a fertilizer, in model rocket propellant, and in several fireworks such as smoke bombs, in which a mixture with sugar produces a smoke cloud of 600 times their own volume. The ratio for smoke bombs using sucrose (powdered sugar) and potassium nitrate is 40(C12H22O11):60(KNO3). It can be used as is, or carefully melted together using a hot plate.
In the process of food preservation, potassium nitrate is a common ingredient of salted meat, but heart patients need to take care with it. As a preservative it can be known as E249.
Potassium Nitrate is also a main component in stump remover; it accelerates the natural decomposition of the stump. Stump remover is usually about 98% pure KNO3, and is a common source of KNO3.
It has also been used in the manufacture of ice cream and can be found in some toothpastes for sensitive teeth. Recently, the use of potassium nitrate in toothpastes for sensitive teeth has increased dramatically, despite the fact that it has not been conclusively shown to help dental hypersensitivity.
A popular misconception is that potassium nitrate is an anaphrodisiac and was added to food in all-male institutions. In fact, potassium nitrate has no such effect in humans.
Although potassium nitrate is used in gunpowder, by itself, potassium nitrate is not combustible or flammable.

Solubility is the amount of a solute that will dissolve in a specific solvent under given conditions. The dissolved substance is called the solute and the dissolving fluid (usually present in excess) is called the solvent, which together form a solution. The process of dissolving is called solvation, or hydration if the solvent is water.

A solution at equilibrium that cannot hold any more solute is said to be saturated. The equilibrium of a solution is mainly dependent on temperature. The maximum equilibrium amount of solute which can normally dissolve per amount of solvent is the solubility of that solute in that solvent. It is often expressed as a maximum concentration of a saturated solution. These maximum concentrations are often expressed as grams of solute per 100 milliters of solvent. The solubility of one substance dissolving in another is determined by the intermolecular forces...

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