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The Spread Of Islam In Arabia

2084 words - 8 pages

There are several historical reasons for the astonishing spread of Islam throughout Arabia and beyond after Muhammad’s death in 632 AD. These factors basically depended in degree of which Islamic leader, empire, or dynasty was in power. Although the religious sincerity and zeal of the Islamic powers varied greatly, some reflection of the Muslim’s religious belief in past was needed to internally stabilize the Islamic world. The ways in which Islam spread was due to ingenuity of the Islamic powers and regular reliance of Islamic leaders on the religious principles established by the Prophet as well as the early Caliphs.
The spread of Islam would not have occurred without Prophet Muhammad, the founder of Islamic religion, who succeeded to win support for his spiritual and political status within Arabia in the early seventh century. After receiving divine revelations from God Allah, Muhammad slowly acquired a small following and eventually some families had converted to Islam; however, not everyone was convinced by his messages. This was especially true of the pagan rulers of his Qurash tribe in Mecca. A series of conflicts between the Qurash and Muslims started in 630, when the Qurash broke an earlier peace treaty that had been established. This led Muhammed to move Mecca with his mens and take the city without any killing or wounding of people. He then destroyed the idols around the Kabah and devoted it to God again. Opposition and consequent persecution by Pagan rulers of Qurash tribe in Mecca caused the early Muslims to move to Yathrib, which appeared to be actually beneficial to them. By the time of Muhammad’s dealth in 632, as Karen Armstrong, a british author of numerous works on comparative religion explains, “almost all the tribes of Arabia had joined the ummah as Confederates or as converted Muslims” (12). The tribes around Yathrib were fascinated by Muhammad’s spiritual vision and their commited devotion to the Umma. The conquered people found Islam attractive and many converted. Furthermore, after Muhammad, the Quranic principles were followed and applied by the successors, the first four Caliphs, who are described as “ the rightly guided” (Mohammad 384). The followers of Muhammad had to decide who should be the first caliph. Abu-Bakr was elected as the first successor. He and the other rightly-guided caliphs (Umar, Uthman, and Ali) rapidly expanded the Muslim empire. The death of Muhammed was not the end of Islam, but it rather dramatically gain momentum through his successors, the Caliphs.
The early Caliphs were able to fortify Muslim rule in Arabia and launch further conquests with the combination of three important factors: unification, religious devotion, and conquest. The initial spread of Islam was so rapid that, as H.U. Rahman, the author of Chronology of Islamic History points out, “in less than one century after death of the Prophet Muhammad in 632 AD, Muslim rule covered more of the earth than had the Roman Empire at its...

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