The Statute of the Man in the Modern Catholic Anthropology
ABSTRACT: In what follows, I examine the renaissance of the idea of freedom as a fundamental measure of humanity in the work of Karol Voitila (Pope John Paul II). I examine as well Karol Voitila's concept of the human person as found in his work "Love and Responsibility" as well as the encyclical Evangelium vitae, which affirms the incomparable value of the human person. I also consider the celestial predestination of the human person as discussed in the documents of the Second Vatican Council.
The prevailing motive in the philosophy of the Renaissance and the following centuries is the affirmation of human liberty and dignity on the base of his life on the Earth, the emphasis on the innate human striving for food, happiness and liberty, for universal perfection and entirety of the human nature, for organic unity between the spiritual and the physical.
I can not disagree with Erih Fromm, who emphasizes that even in the late Middle Ages the Catholic doctrines, and the philosophy of the Renaissance later, express the tendency to acknowledging the role of the human will and human exertion - the Catholicism is in harmony with the spirit, that dominates in the social groups, which economic status brings them the feeling of strength and independence.
The Renaissance idea of freedom as a fundamental measure of human nature "finishes" in philosophy like Sheller and Sartr with apotheosis of the act and the constant choice. Butt the freedom as an act is simultaneously a human ability of selfmaster, self-improvement, restraining the mean passions and motives. Freedom is also the ability to be loyal to ourselves and to our beliefs, to reach the real creation in which the man feels as a master and owner - isn't the possession a CONTINUATION of freedom?
These are the fundamental aspects of freedom, connected with the human action, the ethical base, the responsibility and the devotion to God, that obstructs its absolutizing and debase it to the level of the arbitrariness, anarchyand the blasphemous degrading of the choice. Theses aspects carried over the centuries by the great philosophers (first by the Renaissance philosophers) find their normal and logical continuation and development in the philosophy works of Pope Ioan Pavel II and in his remarkable encyclical letters.
In the book "Person and Act", brought into existence probably in the spiritual atmosphere of the Second Vatikana Council, the traditional Tomistic anthropology is critically re-valued. Karol Woytila reproaches the anthropology of St. Toma Akvinski and his orthodox followers that they do not pay the necessary attention to the most important aspects of human existence - the real man is not shown, the one who lives, acts, feels, responsibility about his own acts, loves, suffers, dies,
According to Woytila, the scholastic doctrine about the human being is outside the veracious anthropological tradition - the human...