The Constitution sets up the government in the United States of America. This is split into three branches: Congress, which is the Legislative, the President also known as Executive and the Supreme Courts also known as the judicial. Each branch has its own power and structure.
The first branch is Legislative (Congress). This branch is bicameral; it consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The House of Representatives has 435 seats, 19 committees, and 84 sub-committees. They have the power to create laws and to impeach presidents. All bills that consist of raising money must come from the House. All laws must pass by the House of Representatives before they reach the president. The Senate has 100 seats, two per state, sixteen committees, and sixty-nine sub-committees. The Vice-President is president of the Senate. The Senate has the power to take impeachments to trial with two-third votes. Senate must also approve all bills on raising money, as well as all laws must be passed before going to the President. All together, they oversee elections, to tax, borrow money, coin money, set rules of naturalization, regulate commerce, declare war, and make laws that are proper and necessary. Although the Legislative has many powers over the United States they do not have the power to suspend Habeas Corpus, they cannot tax interstate commerce, Cannot take money from treasury unless a law is passed to do so, and they cannot give a title of nobility.
The Executive Branch is the second branch. The President is the head. He must be a natural born citizen, with at least fourteen years of living within the United States, must be at least 35 and must give state of the union to congress. A presidential term is only four years in length and he or she must take an oath. The president is the Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy. The President can grant pardons, veto laws, call congress into session, make treaties, appoint Supreme Court, and he or she can create cabinets/advisors such as the Department of Education and Department of Labor. The President can be impeached for treason, bribery, or other high crimes or misdemeanors.
The last branch is the Judicial Branch, which is the Supreme Courts. Supreme Court justices are appointed by the President and approved by the Senate. They hold their office for life or until they retire. Justices are responsible for interpreting the law and Final court of appeals for state and federal cases. They can also declare presidential acts unconstitutional, as well as laws unconstitutional. There technically aren’t any qualifications listed in the constitution but there are some unofficial qualifications such as politically active, lawyer or lower court judge, and same political party as the president. The Judicial act of 1789 created a three part court system. The three parts consist of the Supreme Court, Circuit courts, and District courts.