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The Structure Of Ferns And Their Reproduction

2582 words - 11 pages

The Structure of FernsFerns and flourish plants are so-called 'higher' plants which differ from the 'low' plants, for example, mosses and mushrooms by there construcion. They consist of 3 basic organs, the root, shoot or trunk and leaf. Our open land ferns are hardy herbaceous plants which lost their leaves either in autumn or are winter-green or evergreen. They grow from a rhizom which is like most ferns more or less arising erect above the ground. Some species also form short creeping rhizoms, spread out over a single location. Few species , as for example the Ostrich fern (Matteuccia strutiopteris), can become annoyingas they grow metre long underground rhizomes, sometimes.The leaves call ...view middle of the document...

Ferns are resident in all climate zones. Particularly richly in ferns are regions with damp climate. The biggest species number is resident in the tropics. Here many of the species live as an Epiphyte.What makes them different from other vascular plants?There are two answers to this.The first is that ferns are (relatively) delicate plants that only grow in areas where there are suitably moist conditions. They favour sheltered areas under the forest canopy, along creeks and streams and other sources of permanent moisture. They cannot grow readily in hot dry areas like flowering plants and conifers.The second explanation ties in with the first: ferns reproduce differently from the conifers and flowering plants. It all has to do with moisture. Not just the moisture that allows the plant to live where it does, but the moisture that allows it to reproduce there.Types of algaeThe main phylogenetic groups of algae areDiatoms: unicellular organisms of the kingdom protista, characterized by a silica shell of often intricate and beautiful sculpturing. Most diatoms exist singly, although some join to form colonies. They are usually yellowish or brownish, and are found in fresh- and saltwater, in moist soil, and on the moist surface of plants. Fresh-water and marine diatoms appear in greatest abundance early in the year as part of the phenomenon known as the spring bloom, which occurs as a result of the availablity of both light and (winter-regenerated) nutrients. They reproduce asexually by cell division. When aguatic diatoms die they drop to the bottom, and the shells, not being subject to decay, collect in the ooze and eventually form the material known as diatomaceous earth. Diatoms can occur in a more compact form as a soft, chalky, lightweight rock, called diatomite. Diatomite is used as an insulating material against both heat and sound, in making dynamite and other explosives, and for filters, abrasives, and similar products. Diatoms have deposited most of the earth's limestone, and much petroleum is of diatom origin. The surface mud of a pond, ditch, or lagoon will almost always yield some diatoms.Chlorophyta: division of the kingdom of protista consisting of the photosyntetic organism commonly known as green algae. The various species can be unicellular, multi-cellular, coenocytic (having more than one nucleus in a cell), or colonial. Chlorophyta are largely aguatic or marine, a few types are terrestrial, occurring on moist soil, on the trunks of trees, on moist rocks and in snow banks. Various species are highly specialized.Euglenophyta: small phylum of the kingdom protista, consisting of mostly unicellular aguatic algae. Some euglenoids contain chloroplasts with the photosynthetic pigments; others are heterotrophic and can ingest or absorb their food. Reproduction occurs by longitudinal cell division. Most live in freshwater. The most characteristic genus is Euglena, common in ponds and pools, especially when the water has been polluted by...

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