It is only logical that countries try to avoid aggression and conflicts because of the costs of war, which include monetary lost, casualties both military and civilian, and property loss. Thus collective-security organizations were created to help to mediate between states in order to avoid interstate conflicts and aggression that could lead to wars. The United Nations is one of these organizations, its goals are to promote peace, security, and cooperation between its members. The members in the UN are assumed to have the same common interest which is to prevent aggression and war (FLS, 189). To date the UN members have been able to agree to collective-security measures only twice, Korea in 1950 and Kuwait in 1991.
The United Nations comes together when one state attacks or threatens to attack another state. Once this occurs they then calls all of its members together to determine what the next step will be to address the state that attacked first. The UN can utilize a economic sanction , military intervention, or other actions with the support of its members. The threat of calling all of the members together to punish the state that committed the “crime” is used to deter states from being aggressive toward one another. The UN serves as a neutral observers to the conflict and a peacemaker to resolve the problem and make sure that each side commits to their promises of peace. The UN however, has a hard time of getting its members to agree to collective-security measures and since its creation has only been able to resolve few conflicts.
Thus the question is then why is collective security such a difficult concept to enforce. The first challenge that makes it hard to enforce is the collective action problem, the UN does not have the power to provide their own military forces, it relies on the military of its members to support its threats by sending the necessary military personal . However, this causes the free rider problem, where all states want to benefit from the lack of aggression but no wants to put in resources needed to support the UN's efforts to maintain peace. The free rider problem leads to low levels of cooperation from the states making it difficult to come to agreements (FLS,192).
The second challenge that makes enforcing collective security difficult is the joint decision...