Mandela's childhood was very important in shaping him to be the man he
was. His father losing his land in 1919 would have affected Mandela's
opinion of how the country works as he grew up, and when he was 16 the
main speaker at his circumcision told that "Blacks were slaves in
their own country". He grew up with the opinion that his country
needed a better rule, because of how unfair it was to Black people.
His earliest decisions to fight for Black liberation were made here.
Another turning point was when Chief Jongintaba died in 1942. He then
stayed in Johannesburg instead of moving back to Mqhekezweni, this
showed he wanted to make an impact on the country as a whole instead
of just his tribe or area; he was beginning to see that the duty was
to his people as a whole, and ethic loyalties gave way to a common
purpose. This is where Mandela's campaign for equality for Blacks
This reason was not only important for him at the time, but it led to
Mandela's ideas about a multi-racial South Africa, directing him
towards the formation of the ANC Youth League; the Youth League being
important because it was the most active sector of the party - it had
the best chance of causing reform in South Africa.
Another turning point in Mandela's life was the formation of the MK,
or Spear of the People, when he realised that peaceful protest wasn't
going to work (after seeing the Sharpeville and Langa massacres). It
was from this that he was sentenced to jail in 1964, important because
he achieved the world stage that would make him a symbol of unity for
the worldwide anti-apartheid movement.
Mandela's release in 1990 was the most important turning point in his
life because it allowed him to unite the, now permitted, ANC factions.
Unity these factions meant that the party could operate more
effectively, as was proved when in 1994 Mandela became the first
democratically elected president of South Africa.
Q2. Explain the part played by external pressure in the fight against
apartheid and minority rule in South Africa.
From 1960 onwards, when Harold Macmillan made his "change of winds"
speech, the world started to place external pressures on South Africa,
and this was one of the main causes of the end of apartheid. Economic
sanctions and sporting isolation were the two main subdivisions of
Sporting isolation made South Africa realise that the minority rule
and the apartheid regime was greatly frowned upon by the rest of the
world, and caused many Afrikaners to change their attitude to the way
the country was being run; this was because they didn't want to be
excluded from the rest of the world's competitions and tournaments
solely for their governments issues; it made the Afrikaners feel
guilty for the regime ruling South Africa. This attitude would