The Study Of Akali Metal Contamination In Road Side Soil

1207 words - 5 pages

IL 3; Experiment 1October 31, 1996The Study of Akali Metal Contamination in Road Side SoilAbstractSix soil samples were taken from a roadside that was expected to exhibit characteristic of road salt contamination. This contamination is characterized by the presence of magnesium, calcium and sodium. The relationship between akali metal concentration and distance from the pavement was examined and determined to be nonexistent. Additionally, atomic absorbtion and atomic emission spectroscopy were compared and and atomic absorbtion was found to be 1.89 times as sensitive as atomic emission.IntroductionA common technique in snow and ice removal on roadways is the application of magnesium, calcium, and sodium chloride salts to the surface of the road. When the ice melts it dissolves these salts and causes them to migrate into soil that is adjacent to the pavement. Over time, the accumulation akali metal salts can change the chemical profile of the soil which can lead to detrimental biological effects. Flame atomic spectroscopy provides a technique that can quantify metal concentrations in the extracts of the soil samples and consequently examine the relationship between distance from the point of road salt application and akali metal concentrations.ExperimentalSoil preparation: Six surface soil samples were collected at the intersection of Cold Spring Lane and the exit ramp of Interstate 83, in northwest Baltimore city. These samples were collected at distances from the roadway of 0m, 2m, 4m, 6m, 10m, and 20m. These samples were dried in a convection oven at 110癈 for over 24 hours then crushed. Aliquots of approximately one gram were weighed and then extracted with 10.0 mL of 1M ammonium acetate. The extract was filtered with an inline filter disc with a pore size of 5mm and then diluted to 100.0 mL.Instrumental: The extracts were analyzed for Ca, Na, and Mg using a Varian model AA-3 flame atomization spectrophotometer with a diffraction grating monochromator. Data was collected with a Houston Instrument chart recorder. An acetylene/air reducing flame was used for all determinations (10 psi acetylene/7 psi air). Two replicates of each sample were made and averaged for both AA and AE. The analysis was seperated into two methods; atomic absorbtion (AA) and atomic emission (AE). The emission intensities and absorbances were determined from the measured peak height obtained from the chart recordings.Atomic Emission: Na and Ca concentrations in the soil were determined using AE. The spectrophotometer was calibrated using the standard series method for both elements. Regression analysis was performed on the calibration data to provide a functional relationship between emision intensity and concentration.Results and Conclusions:Sodium: The atomic line used in the analysis for sodium was at 589.0 nm. The relationship between emision intensity and concentration was found to be quadriatic, as depicted in the below chart. The equation that describes...

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