The Success Of Nazi Policies Toward Education And Youth

1992 words - 8 pages

The Success of Nazi Policies Toward Education and Youth

Hitler and the Nazi party had a range of policies to control education
and the German youth. This was mainly to ensure loyalty to Hitler and
the Nazi party. Some believed in these policies and other did not but
it was fear and glory and the fear of social inadequacy that made most
comply. Hitler and the Nazis wanted to control the education system
and youth by controlling the teachers, pupils and the curriculum.

In April 1933, a law was passed that made membership of the NSDAP
compulsory for civil servants. Hitler and the Nazi party wanted the
teaching profession to be dominated by pro-Nazi teachers and so
"undesirable" teachers such as Jews and those who held left wing views
were removed. In 1935 the National Socialist Teachers Alliance,
NS-Lehrerbund, replaced all teachers groups. Basically all teachers,
by 1937, belonged to the NSLB and were rigorously controlled. There
was some disagreement from teachers but most accepted that in order
for Gleichschaltung to work, the ideological indoctrination of their
pupils was necessary. Some already well established nationalist
stronghold German universities were easily taken under Nazi control
with 12 000 "unsuitable" lecturers removed and control was passed to
"reliable" pro-Nazi rectors. Professors and lecturers were forced to
adjust to the new regime's requirements or they would be replaced.
Often men who lacked the experience and qualifications of University
professors and lecturers were appointed because they would apply the
indoctrination ideology. The number of Jewish entrants to schools and
universities was limited from 1933 and in 1934 Jewish students were
not allowed to do medical, dental and legal courses. By 1936 it was
forbidden for Jewish teachers to even give private tuition to Aryan
children and by November 1938 all German schools excluded Jewish
children. Pupils had to greet their teachers by saying "Sieg Heil" and
by performing the Nazi salute. Swastikas, propaganda, racist material
and photographs of Hitler hung in every classroom. Teachers were
issued with guidelines to regulate the content of text books including
extracts from Mein Kampf which were discussed and, on occasion, put to
memory. There was additional emphasis put on physical education which
was intended to develop fitness, discipline and esprit de corps.
Pupils were made to do 5 hours a week, in senior schools, of physical
education and boxing was made compulsory. Adequate standards had to be
reached and pupils who failed to reach that standard were barred from
higher education. German culture, history and biology were changed the
most by syllabus changes although all subjects were affected. Lessons
emphasized the idea of the Volk where young Germans were made aware of
their racial identity. The Nazi...

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