The Theory Of Intelligence Essay

777 words - 3 pages

There are basically two camps on the theory of intelligence, how exactly to define intelligence is still debated. There are, however, two major schools of thought on its nature and properties. This paper examines and evaluates the two opposing theories on the nature of intelligence. The two opposing theories of intelligence are the one general intelligence school of thought and the multiple intelligences school of thought. The general intelligence proponents believe that there is one factor from which all intelligence is derived; the multiple intelligences proponents believe that there are different kinds of intelligence. Each theory has merit and evidence to support its claims.
Two major schools of thought on the nature of intelligence. The first, supported by such psychologists as Eysenck, Galton, Jensen, and Spearman, believe that all intelligence comes from one general factor, known as g. The proponents of the other school of thought include Gardner, Sternberg, and Thurstone. These psychologists think that there is more than one general type of intelligence, or in other words, that there are multiple types of intelligences.
The most convincing evidence for a single general intelligence model is the fact that there is proof of a single general factor that governs the level of intelligence of an individual. This is also known as the positive manifold (Spearman). Furthermore, there is a very high correlation between IQ and very simple cognitive tasks, which supports the theory of one general intelligence (Eysenck).
The first argument in support of one general intelligence is the fact that there is a high positive correlation between different tests of cognitive ability. (Spearman ), in doing his research, administered to many people different types of tests, covering several different areas of cognitive ability. Another strong argument in support of one general intelligence is the fact that there is a very high correlation between reaction time and IQ. an example of the type of tests used to measure reaction time is a test in which a light is turned on. The participant is asked to press a button as soon as he sees the light go on. From tests such as these, the reaction time can be measured.
Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences suggests that originally there were seven different forms of intelligence. He later added an additional form of intelligence to the previous seven. They are linguistic, musical, spatial, bodily, interpersonal, intrapersonal, logical-mathematical and...

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