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The Tools Of Foreign Policy Essay

976 words - 4 pages

Policy is being viewed as an explicit plan of action adapted to serve specific purposes. Policy as design is directed towards the accomplishment of objectives, thereby generating expectation that those objectives will be achieved. In the context of international relations, policy can also be known as foreign policy (FP) which is accomplished by policymakers through the decision making. FP refers to the external relations of states or simply diplomacy. FP dictates how a country will act with respect to other countries politically, socially, economically and militarily, and to a somewhat minor extent and how it behaves towards non-states actors. Generally, FP was acting based on the tools or ...view middle of the document...

Besides arm embargoes, state can use economic sanction to influence the other states. According to Carter (1988) economic sanctions might be defined as coercive economic measures taken against one or more countries to force a change in policies, or at least to demonstrate a country’s opinion about the other’s policies (p. 4). Economic sanctions typically include measures such as trade embargoes, restrictions on particular exports or imports, and contradiction of foreign assistance. For example, during the war between U.S. and Japan can labelled as coercive democracy, where U.S. applied an oil embargoes sanction towards Japan and the subsequent entry of the U.S. into World War II, stemmed from economic sanctions (Smith, 2004).
The next foreign policy tool is diplomacy. Diplomacy is the act dealing with other nations, usually through negotiation and discussion. Diplomacy involves a meeting between political leaders, sending diplomatic messages, and making public statements about the relationship between countries (Sparknote, 2012). Usually, diplomacy was occurred when more than two countries seat on the same table and discuss the issues or conflict in their country and try to achieve their objectives or goals. In ancient worlds, traditional diplomacy was very strict which is involves two parties (bilateral) and both parties need to keep the negotiation secretly. Most diplomacy occurs behind the scene as officials hold secret negotiations or meet privately to discuss key issues (Sparknote, 2012). Moreover, the agenda of traditional diplomacy focused on variety of issues especially military and war. After the end of the World War II, the process and agenda of traditional diplomacy was change and now as known as modern diplomacy. Modern diplomacy is more open and complex activity involving more and different states (multilateral). The diplomatic activity focus more on economic, social and welfare issues which is related to material wellbeing. Besides that, states also established the international organization such as UN to act as international for peaceful settlement of dispute and deterrent against another World War through...

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