The Tragedy Of The Commons Essay

9628 words - 39 pages

Inleiding (Katrijn Braem en Jan Melis) Een paar jaar geleden steunde de artiest Sting een lokale indianenstam in hun strijd tegen projectontwikkelaars die een deel van hun land wilden overnemen. Hij bewoog hemel en aarde opdat het stuk amazonewoud in de handen van zijn oorspronkelijke bewoners zou blijven. Zijn actie bleef niet zonder resultaat en met de hulp van veel media-aandacht bereikte hij uiteindelijk zijn doel: de indianen bleven de beheerders van 'hun' natuurlijke hulpbron. Stings verbazing was echter groot toen bleek dat deze indianen het stuk land even later doorverkochten aan hun oorspronkelijke vijanden… In de praktijk blijkt dat het beheer van natuurlijke hulpbronnen in ontwikkelingsland vaak neerkomt op wanbeheer. Veelal zijn het grote projectontwikkelaars die de natuurlijke hulpbronnen bedreigen: hun commerciële doelstellingen botsen dikwijls met de zorg voor het milieu. Ook werkt de staat in de ontwikkelingslanden niet altijd even efficiënt. We kunnen ons echter afvragen of de lokale bevolking altijd beschermers van hun rijkdommen zijn, zoals blijkt uit het verhaal van Sting.Het beheer van natuurlijke hulpbronnen omvat een brede waaier aan activiteiten en projecten. Vanuit de geschiedenis werd vooral aandacht besteed aan regulering en privatisering ervan. Meer recent beschouwt men ook de gemeenschap als een derde manager. In deze paper onderzoeken we welke van deze drie benaderingen het meest effectief is.Dit beheer zullen we zowel theoretisch als empirisch aan de hand van enkele gevalstudies behandelen. In het eerste hoofdstuk gaan we dieper in op het bekendste managementprobleem, en geven we een overzicht van de belangrijkste oplossingen. Aangezien wij ons in deze paper concentreren op de rol van de gemeenschap, behandelen we in het tweede hoofdstuk enkele theoretische concepten omtrent de gemeenschapsbenadering. In het volgende hoofdstuk verplaatsen we ons naar de echte wereld en bekijken we een gevalstudie in Mali. In het vierde en laatste hoofdstuk geven een antwoord op de vraag of de armen de vriend van het milieu zijn, of eerder de vijand.Hoofdstuk 1 (Wan)beheer van natuurlijke hulpbronnen (Jan Melis) In de praktijk komt het beheer van natuurlijke hulpbronnen vaak neer op wanbeheer. Het bekendste voorbeeld hiervan is ongetwijfeld 'the tragedy of the commons'.1.1 The Tragedy of the Commons Reeds in 1833 vroeg Lloyd zich af waarom de dieren in een gemeenschappelijk weiland zo mager waren, en de gewassen zo schraal, net als het land zelf (Lloyd 1833, in Hardin, 1977). Hardin (1968) herformuleerde dit probleem later onder de naam 'the tragedy of the commons'. Hij ging uit van een situatie waarbij geen enkele restrictie aan het gebruik van communale grond, zogenaamde commons, gesteld wordt. Deze situatie is beter bekend onder de naam 'open access', wat betekent dat...

Find Another Essay On The Tragedy Of The Commons

The Tragedy of the Commons: Ozone Depletion and Climate Change

1482 words - 6 pages ultimate “tragedy of the commons”, an important metaphor in economics that helps explain why this subject is still at the centre of much heated debate and has yet to be resolved in a manner similar to that of the ozone problem. Before analyzing why climate change is possibly the best example of a “tragedy of the commons” situation, it is necessary to begin with an explanation of this concept. In a “tragedy of the commons” circumstance there is a

Tragedy of the Commons: Overfishing the World’s Oceans

1912 words - 8 pages deplete this common resource until it is exhausted. In this sense, the plight of the Bluefin Tuna can be described in economic vernacular as a “tragedy of the commons1”. The expression tragedy of the commons describes how free and open access to common resources, traditionally environmental, are typically overused and will eventually be depleted or destroyed. This negative environmental externality, the unintended and uncompensated costs that

Tragedy of Commons

1761 words - 8 pages King again showing that his habit of getting into other people’s business is a tragic flaw and one of the reasons for his downfall. Arthur Miller says that the “common man who knows this fear best” (Miller, Tragedy of Commons) and that fear is “underlying fear of being displaced, the disaster inherent in being torn away from our chosen image of what and who we are in this world”, this is something that can be related to Polonius as he wants to be

Tragedy of the Commons and the problem of overpopulation and resource demand among the American society

716 words - 3 pages Tragedy of the Commons: Overpopulation and Resource DemandHardin's "Tragedy of the Commons" thesis provides a great example and forewarning of overpopulation and resource demand (Burger & Gochfeld, 1998). Overpopulation is likely the world's chief concern. With this population increase comes the demand on resources. We, as a global society, keep tapping into these resources; resources that may already be close to depletion or no longer

The tradegy of the commons

1082 words - 4 pages The Tragedy of the Commons.The essay The Tragedy of the Commons makes many points that all lead up to a central idea. These points all revolve around the central idea that there is only a finite amount of land and resources available on the Earth. And that the population of the earth is either approaching or is already at the Earth's carrying capacity. The essay brings up the view that there is no technical solution to the problem of

the House of Commons and the House of Representatives

1517 words - 7 pages This analysis begins by exploring the major differences between the U.S. Congress and British House of Commons in terms of political accountability, committee importance, and party loyalty to the President/Prime Minister. The basic political structures of both the House of Commons and the House of Representatives are very similar in structure and function and this most likely stems from the fact that the United States Congress is based, at least

The Tragedy of Macbeth

635 words - 3 pages In Shakespeare’s bloodiest tragedy, Macbeth, the protagonist Macbeth suffers from the tribulations of being an overbearing tyrant. Macbeth is afflicted by his hubristic personality, and not only victimizes himself but also radiates the agony to those around him. The suffering of Macbeth’s own people is a direct consequence of his tragic flaw of ambition, which leads to multiple misfortunate events; Macbeth’s tragic flaw, and the events that

The Tragedy of Verona

871 words - 4 pages In Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, the star-crossed lovers, Romeo and Juliet commit a tragic act, suicide. However, this act is not only the tragedy of two lovers, but the whole city of Verona. Likewise, the renowned poet and writer, W.H. Auden argues, "The tragedy of Romeo and Juliet is not simply a tragedy of two individuals, but the tragedy of a city. Everybody in the city is one way or another involved in and responsible for what happens

The tragedy of medea

682 words - 3 pages The Tragedy of MedeaThe play Medea by Eurypides is looked upon as a tragedy even though in the end, the main character of the story succeeds in what she had set upon to accomplish. Even so, this play still fits the Aristotelian definition of a tragedy. Aristotle wrote that for a play to be a tragedy, it must have several characteristics. First, it must show life as being better than it is in reality. Tragedies are also imitations of events in

The tragedy of macbeth

778 words - 4 pages The Tragedy of Macbeth is one of Shakespeare’s most popular plays to ever have been written. Takes place back in the Elizabethan age back when kings and queens ruled certain countries and people did not have much freedom. The Tragedy of Macbeth has to do with a couple madly in love with one another. Where Macbeth would do anything for his wife lady Macbeth; in ACT I Macbeth and Banquo return from battle, he and Banquo meet three witches who

The Tragedy of Hamlet

860 words - 3 pages Arguably the best piece of writing ever done byWilliam Shakespeare, "Hamlet" the is the classic example of atragedy. In all tragedies the hero suffers, and usuallydies at the end. Othello stabs himself, Romeo and Julietcommit suicide, Brutis falls on his sword, and like themHamlet dies by getting cut with a poison tipped sword. Butthat is not all that is needed to consider a play a tragedy,and sometimes a hero doesn't even need to die.Not every

Similar Essays

Tragedy Of The Commons Essay

1470 words - 6 pages The tragedy of the commons is a dilemma arising from situation in which multiple individuals, acting independently and rationally consulting their own self-interest, will ultimately deplete a shared limited resource even when it is clear that it is not in anyone's long-term interest for this to happen. Hardin's Commons Theory is cited to support the notion of sustainable development, meshing economic growth and environmental protection and has

Environmental Science And The Tragedy Of The Commons

650 words - 3 pages Garret Hardin, the author of "The Tragedy of the Commons", studies the natural cycle of humans using non-replenishable resources, and the causes of the cycle. He states that the human population problem is a member of the class of no technical solutions because it is a Tragedy of Commons. Hardin says that "It is fair to say that most people who anguish over the population problem are trying to find a way to avoid the evils of overpopulation

The Tragedy Of The Commons And Collective Action

1639 words - 7 pages The tragedy of the commons and the problem of collective action are two key concepts in the world of political science. They act under the assumption that man is a rational being who will act in his own self interest. Humanity id broadly diverse meaning that each individual has their own ideas as to how society should run and how people should live.(heywood) This inevitably results in disagreement and this is where politics steps in. Aristotle

Environmental Issues Depicted In Hardin's "The Tragedy Of The Commons"

744 words - 3 pages “The Tragedy of the Commons” written by Garret Hardin explains how the human population is degrading the environment. When Hardin refers to commons he is talking about a resource that is owned by no one and used by a group of people. Some examples of commons include the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the oceans we fish. The tragedy is that people don’t look at the bigger picture; the over use of commons for our own personal benefit