WOMAN’S UNIVERSITY IN AFRICA
a) Describe the characteristics of intelligent behaviour (5 marks)
Stair, R.M. and Reynolds, G.W (1996) defines intelligent behaviour as the ability to learn from experience and apply the acquired knowledge, handle complex situations, solve problems when important information is missing, determine what is important, react quickly and correctly to a new situation, understand visual images, process and manipulate symbols, be creative and imaginative and use of heuristics. It is from this definition that some of the characteristics of intelligent behaviour will be explored.
The ability to learn from experience and apply the knowledge acquired from past experience, is key to intelligent behaviour. While this ability is natural in humans, it is not natural in machines. For this reason, such abilities need to be carefully programmed in them. Deep Blue for example, used this technique to beat the renowned chess grandmaster Gary Kasperov in 1997. After learning from past experiences, it is an attribute of intelligent behaviour to apply the gained knowledge to new settings and situations.
Acting in complex environments is an aspect which describes intelligent behaviour. Intelligent system or agent must be able handle complex situations. Careful planning and elaborate programming is required for computer systems to handle perplexing situations.
Use of heuristics
This refers to the making of decisions using general rules of thumb or informed guesses without completely searching all the available alternatives or possibilities. This attribute of intelligent behaviour, whilst natural to humans, is difficult to achieve in machines. Given the right programs, a computer system can obtain good results/solutions that use approximations instead of searching for an optimal solution. Sometimes optimal solutions may be technically difficult or too time consuming to achieve.
Creativity and imagination. This is the ability to turn difficult situations into opportunities and advantages. Producing products and services from existing, sometimes negative situations, is a natural human trait, computers through Artificial Intelligence are being developed to do such things as writing short stories.
a) Describe the Turing test and highlight its importance to AI. (5 marks )
The Turing Test was proposed by Alan Turing (1950) in an attempt to satisfactorily operationalize the definition of intelligence. Alan Turing, according to Russell et al, went on to define intelligent behaviour as “the ability to achieve human level performance in all cognitive tasks sufficient to fool an interrogator”. This underlined the birth of the Turing test that today’s scientists are striving to fulfil.
In his test, Turing proposed 3 separate rooms each of which contained a person, a computer and an interrogator as shown below:
Since this test was for intelligence and not appearance or voice, he decided the interrogator communicate with the other 2 by...