Human body hosts thousands of bacteria that play a major role in maintaining the health. At the same time, the body is fighting against thousands other microbes that may cause infections. Each year at least 2 million people become infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics and at least 23,000 people die each year as a direct result of these infections. Many more people die from other conditions that are complicated by an antibiotic-resistant infection consequently. Antibiotics may not vanquish the resistant pathogens and thus, there is a need for effective alternate strategies to treat microbial infections. Antibiotics have transformed medicine and saved countless lives over ...view middle of the document...
Also, it prevents the most common problem which is faced with microorganisms, that is resistance developed against the drug. Microorganisms are not able to alter themselves in order to develop resistance against both the compounds, since both have different mechanisms of
In the recent years, the search for pharmaceutically important drugs has accelerated. While on one side, synthetic drugs are being developed, researchers have always been interested in identifying and understanding the use of plant extracts for medications. Historically plants have served as a basis for novel drug development, thereby contributing to human health and well-being. Ethno pharmacologists, botanists, microbiologists, and natural-products chemists are looking for phytochemicals for treatment of various infectious diseases. Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites, such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids, which have been found in vitro to have various activities of clinical importance like antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergent, etc.[1-3]Since plant antimicrobials contain different functional groups in their structure, their antimicrobial activity[1-3] is attributable to multiple mechanisms.Thus, unlike antibiotics, the potential for bacteria to develop resistance to plant antimicrobials is relatively less.
Xanthine, 3, 7-dihydro-purine-2,6-dione, is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms. A number of stimulants are derived from xanthine, including Caffeine. Xanthine is a product on the pathway of purine degradation.
• It is created from guanine by guanine deaminase.
• It is created from hypoxanthine by xanthine oxidoreductase.
• It is also created from xanthosine by purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP).
Derivatives of xanthine are a group of alkaloids are known to possess various activities of clinical importance. They are commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in the treatment of asthma symptoms. Methylated xanthines include Caffeine, aminophylline, IBMX, paraxanthine, pentoxifylline, theobromine, and theophylline, affect not only the airways but stimulate heart rate, force of contraction, cardiac arrhythmias at high concentrations. In high doses, they can lead to convulsions that are resistant to anticonvulsants. Methyl-xanthines induce acid and pepsin secretions in the GI tract and are metabolized by cytochrome P450 in the liver. Some of these xanthines (Caffeine) also possess potent antimicrobial activity against a number of organisms .
Caffeine is a poly-phenolic phytochemical that occurs naturally in various plants like cocoa, tea and coffee. The level of endogenous Caffeine in leaves of Coffeaarabica L. is much higher in buds and young leaves than in developed leaves. Such accumulation of Caffeine in young leaves may play a role in protecting the tender tissues of the plant against attack by predators. In...