The United States' Outlook on Foreign Policy Affairs
The United States outlook on foreign policy affairs after World War II was influenced by the fear of communist expansionism rather than establishing foreign relations with each country. The U.S. found itself with a conflict between its profound belief in the constitution and democracy and a need for domestic and national security. In 1947, the National Security Act authorized the creation of the Central Intelligence Agency. Its role was to protect domestic security and oversee national relations. Following World War II the Cold War intensified and the anti communist sentiment consumed our country. The actions of the CIA conflicted with that of the constitution and the morality of the American people. Many actions taken by the CIA were secret and covert. Since congress would be required to approve or disapprove of any involvement in a third world country the CIA would keep their actions quiet and not inform the congress. The CIA adopted interventionism policies in third world countries to stop communism and promote our ideology. It was not always known how much the president and his advisors were aware of the covert activities of the CIA. In order to understand our foreign policy concerning third world countries it is important to consider the assumptions, policies and tactics of President Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy and Nixon.
In 1945 Harry Truman took office suddenly and was expected to keep our country and our nation together. Truman’s main objective was to create a foreign policy that would control the spread of communism through out the world including third world countries. While facing the Korean War and trying to stop and contain communism Truman thought that it was time to either get out, or begin a strike on China. The United States knew that a “war against China might well mean war against Russia, which Truman was not prepared to accept.” (Ambrose, Rise to Globalism) Truman reversed the prior United States policy of unilateral disarmament and neutrality to an arms build up and collective security. He made America stronger than it had ever been seen before and helped in creating the United States in becoming a world power.
In 1952, Dwight Eisenhower was elected president and immediately became extremely popular. He also shared Truman’s basic view of American foreign policy. Eisenhower also perceived communism as a force struggling for world supremacy. Eisenhower and his secretary of state, John Dulles, and his brother Allen, who headed up the CIA, felt that containment did not go far enough to stop communist expansion. A more aggressive policy was established. It was during this era that the CIA began more covert actions within the third world countries. In Operation Success the CIA engaged in paramilitary activity to over-throw the leader of Guatemala, a Russian controlled dictator. This policy has continued through many presidential administrations. President Eisenhower...