Textile industry plays a very important role in fulfilling human needs. The industry contributes to produce garments and apparels that human used in their everyday lives. Different types of textiles are used widely by humans in their activities. They used it to cover their bodies, cover their food or ripe plants from animals and weather, to coat their furnitures, and sometimes also used to assists them in sports.
First of all, the fibres can classified as natural or man-made fibres. Natural fibres are those obtained from the natural resources on the environment, whereas the man-made fibres could be synthetic or regenerated fibres. Synthetic fibres are completely made from chemicals while regenerated fibres are those originally from natural resources unsuitable to be used as fibres directly, processed chemically to be changed into textile fibres. In this assignment, we will study on the general textile manufacturing processes as listed below. Then, it is hoped that the knowledge on general process could help us understand more on the industry as well to relate it with the environment.
The general flowchart of the process is shown below:
Raw materials (Fibres)
Spinning Nonwoven fabric
Weaving Knitting Special Techniques
Colouration / Finishing
GENERAL TEXTILE PROCESSING
1. RAW MATERIAL
In cotton processing, cotton are fibre that are classified as the natural fibre that is obtain from natural resources which is plant. Cotton is a seed-hair fibre from plant of the genus Gossypium, belong to the hibiscus or mallow, family (Malvaceae). Cotton is extremely durable and resistant to abrasion as it is usually used as raw material in textile industry due to its versatility, appearance, performances and its comfort. Cotton is versatile as it accepts many dyes, washable and can be ironed at high temperature. In aspect of comfort, cotton is comfort to wear in hot weather because it absorb and release moisture quickly.
Cotton fibres can be divided or classified into three groups which are based on the length and appearance. The first group consist of fine, lustrous fibres with staple length ranging from 2.5 to 6.5. The second group contains the standard medium-staple cotton which the staple length from 1.3 to 3.3. The third group includes the short-staple, coarse cotton which are ranging from 1 to 2.5 cm.
The cotton plant is well cultivated in well-drained, crumbly soils that can hold moisture. Good cotton crops require long, sunny growing season with high moisture level. Cultivation of cotton was started by clearing the area for cotton cultivation from other weed and grass they may compete with the cotton for soil nutrient, sunlight and water and then the soil in the area is broken up and formed into rows.
Using machine, the cottonseed is planted either in clump...