The 8D method is the most popular procedure for systematic introduction of improvements and elimination of problems and errors. It is normally implemented on a product, system and processes. The 8D procedure is a team-oriented process. Many authors (Fauzi, 2011; 8D Report, 2012; Adaptive, 2011; Elsmar, 2012; Jung, Schweißer, & Wappis, 2011; Kokol & Gladež, 2011, pp. 36–38; Siliconfareast, 2003; Ubani, 2011, p. 186; Wikipedia, 2012) describe the eight disciplines of systematic problem solving.
Their theoretical description and practical experience on the use of the 8D method (eight steps) are collected in the following sub-sections.
1D: Identification of Team
A problem can be a deviation from requirements / non-compliance, a defect associated with a product, service or operation/system. Once the problem is identified, appoint a team to solve the problem. The 8D team should include individuals considered to be capable of performing the 8D procedure. The 8D team should be provided with all the available documentation and relevant information.
2D: Problem description
This step stresses that more than identifying the problem, it is important to define the problem by obtaining relevant information from the customer or the person reporting the problem within the organization. A concrete information about the problem like nature location and impacts of the problem is very important in the problem-solving process. It is also necessary to ascertain whether the problem involved is recurrent or whether it occurs on similar products or processes. When describing the problem, the 5W+2H method should be used, where the following questions have to be answered thoroughly and systematically: WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHEN, HOW, HOW MANY/MUCH, and WHY for each question. The answers to these questions help the team to clarify the background of the problem and connections around it.
3D: Immediate action to contain the Problem