The Uses and Types of Walls in Construction
The framework that supports Roofs, ceilings, floors, interior trims and coverings, and exterior trim and coverings. Two types or purposes Bearing and Non load Bearing --carries the weight from above, such as ceilings floors roofs most exterior walls tend to be bearing partitions Some more than others. Eve sides carry more loads then the gable sides. Non bearing walls serve only one purpose and that is to separate Materials- 2x4, 2x6 most exterior walls are going to be framed with 2x6 material for the one purpose of more insulation.
Orientation -southern exposure
Heat always goes to cold
Walls less than 10" we use stud grade, greater than 10" we need to use light framing. Common species are hemlock, spruce, pine, fir, and the further south you travel you'll find more Southern Yellow pine. Moisture content 19% or less. Dry areas where tile may be applied like a hot tub or bath. Lightweight steal again bearing and non-bearing 22-25 gauge the higher the gauge the thinner the steel. Bearing walls-18 gauge or less.
Plates- Horizontal framing members that ties the wall system together. Splices should fall on framing member and be staggered from top to bottom
Double top plate- Provides more support strengthens and ties other wall in with each other, straightens. The splice in a double top needs to be a minimum of four feet away from the splice in the top plate. . Nailing should be slightly toe nailed they should be flushed on the inside and crown out.
Studs -- common wall framing member the member that goes from bottom to top plate in one continues length. Non Bearing Wall- Minimum 2x3 framing material. If floor space needs to be saved you can frame 2x4 the flat way only in special applications. Examples: half baths. Top and bottom plates must be ripped down to an inch and a half
Stud size 2x4 maximum spacing supporting a roof and ceiling is 24"o.c. Exterior walls or interior walls instead of using ½ " sheet rock 5/8" sheet rock would be used.
Rough Openings -- Identify centerlines without a line Jack studs must be continues from bottom plate the header. Distance between jacks is our rough opening we are looking for.
Nailing pattern for stud 2-8d aligned on the bottom.
A door going from a living space to a garage must be fire retardant. Allow 2 ½" more than the size of the door for rough openings. After all rough openings are laid out recheck your rough opening to make sure it's the right size.
Headers are three inches longer than the rough openings, and can be built up with 2 or more pieces of dimensional material and ½" ply spacers. Solid 4x6, 4x8, 4x10 but to green and no insulation can be added. Micro lams, Para Lams are all pre engineared products. Crown mark always goes up on headers and flush on the bottom nailing is 16 on center.
Sills- are single pieces from jack to jack sill is equal to the rough opening.
Every sleeping area shall have at least one operable...