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The Use Of Energy In Modern Day Athelets

4296 words - 17 pages

Both the basketballer and the road cyclist will use each of the three energy systems at different stages of their activities. These three energy systems are the ATP/PC energy system, Lactic acid energy system and the aerobic energy system. In both the basketballer and the endurance road cyclist, certain energy systems are used more predominantly than others. A basketballer will use the ATP/PC energy system substantially more than the cyclist, while the cyclist will use the aerobic energy system substantially more than the basketballer. The ATP/PC energy system is used by the body to produce ATP when there is insufficient time to break down glycogen in the presence of oxygen for the replenishment of ATP. Residual supplies of ATP in the body are very limited, and there is only enough for one explosive muscular contraction, for example, jumping to take a rebound in basketball. An explosive movement causes the ATP molecule to split, providing energy for muscular contraction. Further muscular work relies on creatine phosphate breaking down to creatine and phosphate, and releasing energy in the process. The energy is used to drive free phosphate back to ADP so it can once again become a tripe phosphate. Once reformed, ATP can break down again and so the process goes on. The amount of PC in muscles is limited. After about 10-15 seconds of maximal work, the supply is depleted and another energy system is activated. These supplies will take two minutes to be restored. Because the system is able to recover quickly, it is very important for short explosive movements. At maximal or near maximal effort, fatigue is caused by the inability of the system to continually resynthesise ADP from CP because CP supplies are quickly exhausted. This system is used for the majority of the time a basketballer is playing a game, and is rarely used by an endurance road cyclist. A basketballer may use this system to jump for the ball at the beginning of the game or leap for a rebound. Dribbling at full speed and shooting for a basket will also use the ATP/PC energy system. A road cyclist will only use this energy system if they are required to sprint away from the competitors. This may be during the race or at the end where explosive movement is needed to sprint for the finish.Both the basketballer and the road cyclist will also use the Lactic acid energy system for periods of time during their events. After CP supplies are exhausted, ATP still needs to be produced to provide energy for activity which will take longer that 10-12 seconds. Sufficient oxygen is not available even though breathing rate has increased. This is because it takes some time for the blood to move from the lungs around the body and then to the working muscles where oxygen is in high demand. The body needs to find a different fuel after CP supplies become low. It does this by using the immediate sugar supplies circulating in the blood, as well as the sugar storage supplies in the muscle and liver. We...

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