The Validity Of Plutarch Essay

3232 words - 13 pages

The first century AD gave birth to Plutarch of Chaeronea. He was born into the Greco-Roman world during the Pax Romana, a time of peace that which had not been seen in all of the country's history. Plutarch, coming from an upper-class family, was able to get a good education and find a purpose to his life1. Philosophy was his calling and he was brilliant in his work. An aficionado of the works of his forefathers in thought (from Zeno to Plato), Plutarch used their systems to take his knack for observing the behavior of men and formulating the proper way to live. His essays, On Being Aware of Moral Progress, On Listening, and How to Distinguish a Flatterer from a Friend, came at a time when the city-states of Greece were in moral as well as material turmoil, and he was providing the way out. Regardless of the topic, Plutarch's goal in each essay is the same; becoming a virtuous person and living life the right way.

Before the age of Plutarch and prior to the Pax Romana, there was much strife in the land. The Punic Wars, the battles between Rome and Carthage (a Greek city-state), were not very prosperous for Carthage. Hannibal, leader of the armies of Carthage found an ally in Philip V of Macedonia in 215 BC. Because of this, Rome called upon both the Aetolians and Spartans to regain the upper hand. Philip was eventually defeated during the second Macedonian War and his son and heir, Perseus, did the same in the war's third installment. After their defeat, Macedonia and Greece continued to make their anti-Roman views known. In 148 BC, Macedonia was made a province of Rome and Greece, its subordinate2.

From the time of the reign of Augustus (formerly known as Octavian) onward, Greece became more preferential to the Romans. Augustus separated Greece from Macedonia in 44 BC and Greek culture was beginning to have an influence on Roman thinking3. "Romans were complaining that Rome itself was becoming `a Greek city4.'" Greek became an international language; cultured Romans would make a point to learn it and Greek slaves introduced it to Roman families5.

Although it may have been an intellectual inspiration, much of Greece was still barren and the economy was far from perfect. "The country suffered from uniform poverty and the collapse of autonomy6." From the decades of warring came a population on the downfall and a great decline in merit. "Whereas at its summit the Hellenic states could boast handsome temples, theatres, halls, and palaces ... they found their monies being spent in maintaining wars and in offsetting a growing unfavorable balance of trade7." The only cities with anything close to prosperous trade at this time were Corinth and Patras. People were not concerned with anything but survival. Ancient beliefs of morality and plain old goodness were lost. There was a need for someone, anyone, to turn this awful trend around. Enter Plutarch.

The year AD 46 brought the new thinker into the world. Greece...

Find Another Essay On The Validity of Plutarch

Checking the Validity of Patents in India

1802 words - 8 pages India has sound systems in place to check quality of patents .validity of patents can be challenged under: Sec 25(1): Pre grant opposition: Under this section a patent may be opposed by any person anytime after the patent application is published but before its grant. The proceedings under pre-grant opposition are ex-parte . Sec 25(2): Post grant opposition: Under this section “any interested person” may oppose the patent within 1 year of

The Validity of Creationism and Evolution

3644 words - 15 pages The Validity of Creationism and Evolution Abstract: This paper discusses the validity of both creation and evolution and examines whether they can interact with each other. Besides doing my own research, I have chosen to interview four people extensively involved in either Christianity or biology. I specifically picked interviewees who strongly supported either evolution or creation to get both sides of the issue. Two of the people were

The Validity of Cognitive Dissonance Theory

2597 words - 10 pages the attitude and also the measurement of like or dislike of the girl. Another criteria aspect is validity, which comes in internal and external forms as well. Internal validity means that the independent variables must have the affect on the dependent variables claimed in the theory. The independent and dependent variables can be seen in the theoretic proposition. Thus, the independent variable would be the dissonance because it causes the

Account for the different interpretations and perspectives of the Battle of Salamis as described by Herodotus, Aeschylus and Plutarch

1177 words - 5 pages Herodotus, Aeschylus and Plutarch are all directed by the views of the society of their time. While the three classical writers have similarities, they came from different periods in history. They have gathered evidence or information from varying sources, focused on different aspects, and used different text types to tell the tale. These factors have influenced their thinking, and accounts for their differences in perception and interpretation

The Validity of the Modal Model of Memory

3088 words - 12 pages The Validity of the Modal Model of Memory Memory can be thought of as the ability to process and retrieve information. In one hundred years of scientific research on this subject, there is still no dominant theory which explains human memory. One of the most prominent models in this area over the past thirty years has been the modal model of memory, which was originally devised by Atkinson & Shiffrin in 1968. This model

Validity and Effect of Emotional intelligence on Effectiveness of Organizational Leaders and the Enterprise

1584 words - 6 pages Introduction Validity is the extent to which a test measures what it claims to measure. It is essential for a test to be valid in order for the results to be accurately applied and interpreted. Validity isn’t determined by a single statistic, but by a body of research that demonstrates the relationship between the test and the behavior it has set out to measure. This paper examines the issue of validity research, comparing, and contrasting

The Validity of Henry Miller's Radical Pacifism in Tropic of Cancer

2771 words - 11 pages repetition of “to me” in “It seemed incomprehensible to me” and “A madhouse, it seemed to me” and “I might say” emphasizes the “subjective truth,” and therefore the validity of the individual’s opinion (Miller, 222; Orwell, 1). He’s not trying to convert, nor is he saying “everyone feels this way;” but instead it’s a claim that there is inherent value in the individual’s opinion. For the individual, it’s an empowering claim. Furthermore, by

Compare and Contrast the Characteristics of External, Internal, and Construct Validity

2027 words - 8 pages Compare and Contrast the Characteristics of External, Internal, and Construct Validity Validity is an important aspect of the research design. For instance, in research the uses statistics as the primary form of measurement. Validity applies to the truth of a standard. A measure is valid, in general, when it (Renata, 2011, 1) includes what it devised to measure. Renata (2011) explained, "Internal and external validity are the two primary types

Reliability and convergent validity of the Cleanliness Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Scale

691 words - 3 pages transmitted diseases. In this assignment the Padua Inventory – Washington State University Revision is translated into Arabic and modified. Modification and translation (face validity) The Head Section Of Psychiatry ,Dr. Abdullah AlOtaibi Psychiatry Consultant in King Faisal specialist hospital in Saudi Arabia, and Dr. Nahed Balalaa General Surgery Specialist in Mafraq Hospital in Abu Dhabi, reviewed the Padua Inventory – Washington State

Questioning the Validity of Young Love: Were Romeo and Juliet really in love?

1168 words - 5 pages Were Romeo and Juliet really in love? “Romeo and Juliet” is a tale of misunderstood youths who fall in ‘love.’ Romeo and Juliet undoubtedly believed they were in love. Circumstances surrounding their unprecedented meeting, individual lives, call into question the validity of their love. To the rest of their world Romeo and Juliet’s connection seems superficial. Their age and immaturity leads the protagonists to the misconception that their love

The validity of dopamine transfer deficit theory in ADHD SHR model

1550 words - 6 pages The validity of dopamine transfer deficit theory in ADHD SHR model. Introduction and Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder in which there is a persistent and developmentally abnormal level of overactivity, inattention and impulsivity. The physical cause or pathophysiology of this disease is currently unknown as the diagnosis is strictly based on relative or excessive increase in the symptoms such as

Similar Essays

Validity Of The Constitution Essay

1353 words - 6 pages liberty (Doc. E). Hence, the immorality of slavery would appear paradoxical to the promise of freedom. As can be seen, the Constitution was flawed with concepts that were diametrically opposed, driving an ideological wedge between the Union. The validity of the Constitution was further questioned legally and authoritatively. The supreme court was seen as the final arbiter of law, but Dred Scott v. Sandford heavily tarnished the court's

The Validity Of Personality Tests Essay

630 words - 3 pages The Validity of Personality TestsWhen looking online for a personality test, I came across one in which the test itself suited my character. It was titled, "Which Cartoon Character Are You?" The test was structured efficiently and humorously just as is my approach to most aspects of my life. The test consists of multiple choice questions with answers that are each given different values unbeknownst to the subject. When the subject finishes, the

Julius Caesar, By William Shakespeare And The Life Of Caesar, By Plutarch

1065 words - 4 pages No matter how hard one tries to avoid being manipulated, it is impossible to avoid all sources such as documents, leaders and friends. Manipulation, the ability to alter the position or influence a person, occurs everywhere one goes. Throughout Julius Caesar by Shakespeare and The Life of Caesar by Plutarch, the theme of manipulation was revealed through countless instances showing both its sources and effects. Several of the characters in both

The Validity Of The Evolutionary Theory

1396 words - 6 pages every life form is the creation of a supernatural being, to reinforce the validity of the evolution theory. Gould undermines creationism by emphasizing its misused concepts of theory and popular philosophy, proving that it is not science. Besides denouncing creationism, Gould also provides theoretical examples as evidence to prove evolution is a theory. Despite their different approaches, both Darwin and Gould effectively prove the existence of