This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

The Virulent Factors Of Bordetella Pertusis

1100 words - 5 pages

Whooping cough is a highly contagious and acute respiratory disease caused by an aerobic Gram negative non-sporulating encapsulated coco-bacillus bacterium, Bordetella pertussis. It is a strict human pathogen with no known animal or environmental reservoirs (Cotter and Miller, 2009) and transmitted through inhalation of bacteria-infected droplets. Consequently colonizing the ciliated cells of the bronchio-epithelium causing disease (Relman, D.A, 1995). Bordetella pertussis disease is characterised by mucus hyper-secretion, epithelial damage and pulmonary edema, with paroxysmal coughing that last for close for a month and post-tussive vomiting. In addition, it is often accompanied by pneumonia, otitis edema, seizures and encephalopathy.

For successful infection to occur, the bacterium should disseminate itself in the lower respiratory tract and evade the host's immune responses. Therefore, the inhaled bacteria droplets attach to the ciliated epithelial cells in the nasal-pharynx and trachea. It is at this point that Bordetella pertussis produces virulent factors to enable its survival in the host. These virulent factors are classified basically into adhesins mediate bacterial attachment to the epithelial cells and toxins that mediate the host immune system. Adhesins include; filamentous haemagglutinin, fimbriae and pertactin while toxins include; pertussis toxin, tracheal cytotoxin, adenylate cyclase toxin and lipo-oligosaccharide (Armirthalingam, 2013). To clearly understand the importance of these virulence factors in Bordetella pertussis pathogenesis and immune evasion, a mouse model system has been used (Carbonetti, 2010). The system suggest that the virulence factors not only alter the host's local environment but also modulate innate and adaptive immune responses thereby causing pro and anti-inflammatory responses.

Filamentous haemagglutinin confers infection by attaching onto the host cells in the lower respiratory tract. It is about 2nm wide, and 50nm long and it has been linked to bio-film formation thereby facilitating dissemination of the disease (Serra et al. 2011). Furthermore, studies have shown pertactin, a 69kDa non fimbrial outer membrane protein, facilitates attachment of the bacteria onto ciliated respiratory cells. Experiments conducted on humans to test the role of pertactin have shown no significant effect except with the results from (Bassinet et al. 2000). Fimbriae (pili or agglutinogen) are believed to cause persistent infection by mimicking the natural ligand-receptor interactions. They protrude from the cell surface of B. Pertussis and are composed of major and minor subunits. The major subunit binds to sulphated sugars, heparan sulphate, an abundant component of the respiratory tract while the minor subunit binds to intergrin V1a-5 located on the monocytes. The binding onto the monocytes causes CR3 activation thereby modulating the immune system. (Geuijen et al., 1996).

After the bacteria has attached to the...

Find Another Essay On THE VIRULENT FACTORS OF BORDETELLA PERTUSIS

The Factors of Suicide Prevention Essay

1686 words - 7 pages . A person that wants to commit suicide has to have felt bad about themselves for a long time. Studies indicates suicide can be prevented through a variety of factors. There are several factors that prevents teenagers and adults from committing suicide. People believe if suicide isn't discussed, it doesn’t help prevent it, and that the thoughts of suicide grow stronger and stronger day by day as it goes unspoken about. Its not really good for a

The Risk Factors of Glacucoma Essay

1628 words - 7 pages developing angle closure glaucoma. While these are risk factors, Dr. Tim Kennedy who Launched Patient.co.uk jointly with his GP wife, Dr. Beverley Kenny, informs us in 1995 that even having a family history, possessing very short sight, or have ever been diagnosed with diabetes puts you at risk of developing a form of glaucoma. Of the different forms of this illness chronic open-angle glaucoma is the one containing the highest casualty rate. Adults

The Causal Factors of the Arab Spring

823 words - 3 pages movements had toppled, though in different ways, authoritarian leaders including Zine El Abidine Bin Ali in Tunisia, Hosni Mubarak in Egypt, Ali Abdullah Saleh in Yemen, and Muammar al-Qaddafi in Libya. In this article, I review the causal factors of the Arab Spring as perceived by scholars who applied qualitative methods (Weyland, 2013; Travis, 2012) or quantitative methods (García-Rivero, 2013; Archilov, 2013). Qualitative approach to

The Risk Factors of Breast Cancer

1557 words - 6 pages person’s life is altered forever. Breast cancer does not discriminate and can happen to anyone at any age. To prevent this disease, one must take the necessary precautions to lower the risk factors. In fact, there are several local and national events to remind people of breast cancer’s existence. Many people do not know this, but there are numerous ways that they can protect themselves against this disease or find the ailment early enough that it

Factors Which Influence the Rates of Reactions

1171 words - 5 pages REFERENCES GENERAL CHEMISTRY FOR ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE II CHE 152-50 Factors Which Influence the Rates of Reactions pages 1-10 OBJECTIVES To examine the factors which cause the rate of chemical reactions to change. QUESTION The question that was proposed for investigation was: Do all factors change the rate equally? Background Discussion For this experiment you have to have a basic understanding of Collision

The Factors of Using Dietary Supplements

1652 words - 7 pages II. Purpose The purpose of this research is to study the factors affecting on the decision to buy the dietary supplement. The most interesting factors are health, product and price. We will survey for the data to the present people select for nothing.In the future, there may be built to the dietary supplement industry this the data can help decided to make a career in the future. III. Research Question Why do people choose to dietary

External/Internal Factors of the Red Cross

1535 words - 6 pages living in tough economic times. Donors contributed three million dollars in the first 31 hours of the campaign.Internal and External Factors affect the functions of American Red Cross in all four aspects of organizational management. Any of the four aspects could have a positive or negative effect on Management. Adapting to these factors is paramount to the continued operation suitable to the Mission Statement of the American Red Cross. External

Factors affecting the resistance of a wire

1216 words - 5 pages Factors affecting the resistance of a wireIntroduction:Resistance is a force, which opposes the flow of an electric current around a circuit.Resistance is measured in Ohms. George Ohm discovered that a circuit sometimes resists the flow of electricity. He called this 'RESISTANCE.' He even came up with a rule for working out the resistance of a circuit, which was:R= V ÷ IV- VoltsI- CurrentR- ResistanceOhms law says the more resistance

factors for the increase of prostitution

941 words - 4 pages WHAT FACTORS MIGHT EXPLAIN THE INCREASING EXPANSION OF THE SEX INDUSTRYThe sex industry refers to all of those legal and illegal adult businesses (prostitution) that sell sexual products, sexual services and sexual contact for profit in the commercial marketplace (Hausbeck, 2004). The sex industry is on the rise as the aspect of sex in modern society is an on going act that can be used for profit all over the world. With the rise of feminism

Historical Factors of the French Revolution

1389 words - 6 pages The three main contributory factors that I am going to focus on are the aristocracy, rising debt levels and inequality amongst the people of France. The role that King Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette had before and during the revolution was a key factor in starting the revolution. His attitude towards his role as king was poor. He was shy, indecisive and disinterested in politics from a very early age and this continued throughout his

Understanding the Predictive Factors of Sexual Offenders

2559 words - 10 pages Within the last few decades, sexual violence has come “to light” as a crime that has destructive implications that drag on for years (Grotpeter, Menard, Gianola, &O’Neal, 2008). With the help of the media, law enforcement and new laws regarding sexual offenders, people are more aware of the crime. The awareness is of the risks that make people more likely to become a victim. However, awareness should also shed light on the predictive factors as

Similar Essays

The Virulent Factors Of Bordetella Pertusis: The Whooping Cough

885 words - 4 pages month and post-tussive vomiting. The illness is often accompanied by pneumonia, otitis edema, seizures and encephalopathy. For successful infection to occur, the bacterium should disseminate itself in the lower respiratory tract and evade the host's immune responses. Inhaled bacteria droplets attach onto the ciliated epithelial cells in the nasal-pharynx and trachea. At this point Bordetella pertussis produces many virulent factors to enable its

The Factors Of Production Essay

1102 words - 5 pages Production Functions A production Function in general, without specifying what kind, is related to the output of a production process which starts which starts with the factors of production. The production functions are an integral part for explaining marginal products as well as allocative efficiency. There are different classifications for production functions, and what constitutes them, determined by the type of production. This article of

Factors Of The American Rebellion Essay

990 words - 4 pages After the French and Indian War, the relationship between the colonists and the British Parliament began to deteriorate. Many factors influenced the idea of patriotism and these factors eventually resulted in a rebellion by the colonists in 1775. The most important factor that eventually led to this rebellion was the Parliament taxing the colonists. The colonists were enraged by the fact that they were being taxed without being represented in

The Risk Factors Of Osteoarthritis Essay

772 words - 4 pages phenotypes, such as distinct genetic traits being linked to OA of the knee, hands or hip (Madry et al., 2012). For knee OA, in classic twin studies heritability has been calculated to be 39% in woman after controlling for other OA risk factors, such as age, sex and BMI (Spector et al.,1996). Additionally, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based twin study provided evidence for the importance of genetic factors in determining cartilage volume