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The War In Afghanistan And Its History

2285 words - 9 pages

Afghanistan, a country in central Asia, is in a state of war with the United States of America for several years nowadays. The war also known as the Operation Enduring Freedom began on October 7, 2001 as a response to the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 by the USA with the United Kingdom in response. The purpose of the war was to capture Bin Laden, destroy al-Qaeda and remove the Taliban regime. To fully understand the conflict, it's important to look into the history of Afghanistan.Firstly, it's necessary to look at Afghanistan's background. It became independent from Britain in August 19, 1919. It's bordered by Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the north, by Iran on the west, Pakistan on the south and by a very tiny part with China on the northeast. The longest Pakistan's border plays an important role for the development and history of Afghanistan. Its rugged terrain full of high snow-capped mountains and deep valleys makes a good place to hide as it was in bin Laden's case. Majority of 32-million population is of Sunni Muslim religion (42%), leaving 19% to be Shi'a Muslims. Population ethnically creates number of groups, Pasthtuns 42%, Tajik 27%, Hazara and Uzbek 9%, Aimak 4%, Turkmen 3% and Balock 2%. Pashtuns as the majority in Afghanistan are the center of the conflict. Hamid Karzai is the president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan winning the first direct election held in 2004 with the help of the USA.Afghanistan has a complicated history being a strategic point of fighting between Indo-European civilizations. Throughout its history it has been occupied and influenced by other nations, numerous Aryan tribes, Persian Empire, Mongols and recently by Britain and Soviet Union. In my opinion, being under the rule of powerful nations for most of the times made Afghanistan incapable of surviving on its own, managing their government, economy and led towards the civil war and therefore towards the today's war.In order to understand the war totally we have to go back to 19th century to Anglo- Afghan Wars (1838-1919). Russia and Britain trying to expand their territories and Britain's concerns about Russia's growing influence in Central Asia resulted in the war. First War (1938-1942) ended up with a defeat of British army. Treaty of Gondamark was the end of the Second War (1078-1980) with Britain promising not to invade the rest of the country, but having the control over Afghanistan's foreign affairs. The Third Anglo-Afghan ended with the Treaty of Rawalpindi, Afghanistan regaining the control of its foreign policies and getting independence from Britain.The years following Anglo-Afghan wars were characteristic for reforms to modernize the country. Some of the reforms, such as abolition of traditional Muslim veil, caused resistance among many tribal and religious leaders. During Mohammed Nadir Khan's rule in years 1933-1973 relationships with Soviet Union became closer and the ones with Pakistan were fading. In 1964 he...

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