# The Heat Of Combustion For One Mole Of Alcohol.

1885 words - 8 pages

Chemistry courseworkMy aim is to find the molar heat of combustion of ethanol, propanol and butanol .I will also be comparing the experimental molar heat of combustion with the theoretical, using bound enthalpy's.Background informationI have found some information that will help me with my experiment. This text is all from www.webchem.netThe complete combustion of propane can be represented by the following equation:or we could redraw it to represent the bonds present:We now need to work out how many of each bond type we have broken.8xC-H2xC-C5xO=OAnd then how many bonds have been formed!6xC=O8xH-OSo using data tables we can look up then average bond enthalpies from, and calculate the enthalpy change of the reaction.Bond TypeAverage bond enthalpy /kJ mol-1C-H+413C-C+347O=O+498C=O+805H-O+464Notice they are all endothermic.So we can now do the sum, remember, sum of bonds broken - sum of bonds formed.DHr°= [(8x413)+(2x347)+(5x498)] - [(6x805)+(8x464)]= - 2054 kJ mol-1 The value for the enthalpy of combustion of propane from the data table is -2219kJ mol-1.This apparent error is due to fact that we use Average Bond Enthalpies in our calculations and the fact that the values above relate to the gaseous state, while the standard combustion state of water is liquid. If we allow for this, we get a value of -2226 kJ mol-1 which is pretty close to the value obtained above. The remaining difference must be down to the average bond enthalpy factor.Preliminary experimentsI will use trial experiments to find the optimum conditions to make sure the test is fair. From an experiment I have done in a previous year I know that a copper calorimeter is the most suitable container to use compared to a boiling tube and a beaker. We also know from our previous experiments that it is best to use a stirrer. So as we know we're going to use a stirrer and the copper calorimeter we can go on to find out the optimum height and if we should use a draft blocker.SafetyBefore I start any experiments I need to think about the safety of my self and others. First I will be using only butanol only for my preliminary experiments as it is the least flammable and so the safest. To extinguish the flam of the butanol burner I will all ways replace the lid never blowing it as if there we any butanol spilled on the outside of the burner it would catch alight. I will be standing for the full derision of the experiment so if any thing were to be spilled I would be able to move out the way quickly and easily. I shall ware goggles to protect my eyes and as my hair is long keep it tied back.Method to find the optimum height·I will first gather my apparatus: butanol burner, copper calorimeter, thermometer, clamp stand, measuring cylinder, stopwatch, heatproof mat, and goggles, then set them up·I measured out 25ml of water·I took the initial weight of the burner and the initial temp of the water·I lit the burner timed it for 2min stirring it every 30seconds and then...

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