English name: Turmeric
Botanical name: Curcuma longa
Common name: Haldi
Family: Zingiberaceae (Ginger family)
Turmeric is a perennial herbaceous plant belonging to Zingiberaceae (Ginger family). It has smaller rhizome. It’s originated from south eastern Asia means nearly to India. It has fleshy rhizomes and its colour vary from bright yellow to orange, which later become the spice turmeric. The powder of turmeric rhizome is used for its flavouring enhancement properties as a spice, food-colouring agent and food preservative. Turmeric is famous for its therapeutic uses such as its, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial, antioxidant, and its digestive properties.
Marco Polo said that a plant that I was found somewhere has the qualities of Saffron, but it is a root in 1280 AD.
Assyrian herbal circa found it in 600 BC and Dioscorides also mentioned in the list of herbal. Turmeric herbal is so ancient that it was also found in the Chinese and Ayurveda medicines. Unani considered it the most beneficial herb for various uses.Budhist monk also used it for various purposes for at least 2000 years.
The height of turmeric plant is in the range of 0.7-1 m. Its rhizomes are cylindrical, aromatic and highly branched vary from yellow to orange colour. The leaves arrangement is in two rows with alternate fashion. Leaves divides into leaf blade, petiole and leaf sheath. False stem is produced from the leaf sheath. The petiole length ranges from 48 to 110 cm.
The bracts are ovate in shape and has light green in colour with a length of 3.5-5 cm. The flowers are threefold and zygomorphic. Sepals have small hairs and are fused. The three unequal length of calyx are present. The petals are 3 in number with bright yellow colour and fuses with the corolla tube. The corolla are also 3 in number and its upper soft-spiny end is triangular in shape. The median stamen which is present in the inner circle is fertile. Later on stamens change the shape into staminodes.The labellum is slightly bigger than outer staminodes.The. The labellum is isobovate with yellowish in colour and its length ranges from 1.2 to 2 cm. The ovary is trilobed and sparsely hairy in nature.
Mode of propagation:
Two routes are used for the propagation of turmeric. One is through seed and other is through rhizome. Propagation through rhizome is very much economical than through seed cultivation. Fingers and mother rhizome is used for the propagation of turmeric. Through various experiments it concluded that mother rhizome considered as a most efficient planting material.
The weight of each seed rhizome should be 20 to 34 grams. Minimum seed rhizome which is required for one acre is 180 kg. Then...