This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Theories Essay

2604 words - 10 pages

Theories in Criminal Justice

     If one were to look up the definition of the word theory, they might find a meaning that pertains to words such as philosophy or a hypothesis. Theories exist in all aspects of life in order to give us explanations of why a certain phenomenon exists. This is extremely evident in the area of criminal justice. One phenomenon I am interested in is the human element during the juvenile years. Throughout I will examine why at an early age some juveniles choose one option that leads to a life of no crime and others choose an option that leads to criminal activity at an early age and then eventually as an adult. Throughout I will bring to the attention some theories of this varied behavior that have been discussed over the years and explain why I agree or disagree with such theories.
     In order to understand these theories that I will address, one must look at the issue of deviance. In order to grasp the concepts of these theories, it is necessary to look at deviance on deeper level. Deviance, after all, is the basis of what these theories are based upon. Normal behavior is defined as conforming to a standard, usual, typical, or expected (Soanes, 2001). Deviant behavior is a divergence from normal standards, usually social or sexual. Therefore, by definition, deviance is not normal.
     Deviance is non-conformity to a set of social norms or expectations widely accepted (Fulcher & Scott, 1999; Giddens, 1997). According to Haralambos and Holborn (1995), deviance is relative. It can only be defined in relation to a set of standards. Since no standards are fixed, deviance is not absolute.
     There are two types of deviance, primary and secondary (Fulcher & Scott, 1999). Primary deviation is behavior that is normative to expectations of a group, but which is “normalized” by them. “While marijuana smokers might regard their smoking as acceptable, normal behavior in the company they move in, they are fully aware that this behavior is regarded as deviant in the wider society” (Taylor, Walton &Young, 1973 cited by Haralambos & Holborn, 1995).
     Many justifications for the normalization of deviant behavior are employed (Fulcher & Scott, 1999). Secondary deviation arises when deviation is no longer normalized (Fulcher & Scott, 1999). It becomes stigmatized or punishable and its consequences can shape a person’s future (Fulcher &Schott, 1999; Giddens, 1997). For example, a child who disrupts a class a couple of times may be labeled as a deviant by his or her teacher and may then continue to act in a deviant way.
     Labeling is an important theory in the study of deviance. Labeling theorists interpret deviance as a process of interaction between deviants and non-deviants (Giddens, 1997). “Social groups create deviance by making the rules whose...

Find Another Essay On Theories

Economic Theories Essay

1037 words - 5 pages Throughout the United States' history, especially after World War I, there have been many competing economic theories about government policy. The architects of the most referenced policies tend to be John Maynard Keynes, Friedrich Hayek of the Austrian School of economic thought and Ayn Rand (though it can be argued Rand’s ideas are more philosophy than economic theory.) These three theories seem to be always in the forefront of any economic

Jungian Theories Essay

1683 words - 7 pages Jungian Theories History: Carl Jung was a Swedish psychiatrist and a psychologist. And during his 86 years of life, from1875 to 1961 developed the analytical psychology. He based his theories on the works of his close friend and mentor Sigmund Freud: the psychoanalytical theories. Early on in his career Jung followed Freud and supported his theories, but as Jung found aspects of Freud's theories that he found disagreements with, Jung

Victimization Theories

1395 words - 6 pages There are five major theories of victimization. These theories discuss how victims and victimization are major focuses in the study of crime. They all share many of the same assumptions and strengths dealing with crime and its victims. The five major theories are Victim precipitation, Lifestyle, Equivalent group hypothesis, Proximity hypothesis, and Routine activities.Victim Precipitation assumes that "victims provoke criminals" and that

Nursing Theories

1110 words - 4 pages As nurses enter into the practice of nursing, they recognize the importance of using their education to guide their actions within the clinical setting. “Theories are pattern that guide the thinking about, being and doing, of nursing” (Parker, 2006, p.8). Comparing theories allows the core structure of the theories to be brought to light, as well as display the merits of using a particular theory while practicing nursing. The theories of Martha

Motivation Theories

1110 words - 4 pages What is Motivation?Motivation is the answer to the question "Why we do what we do?". The motivation theories try to figure out what the "M" is in the equation: "M motivates P" (Motivator motivates the Person). It is one of most important duty of an entrepreneur to motivate people. (I strongly belive that motivating people with visionary and shared goals is more favorable than motivating through tactics, incentives or manipulation through simple

criminology theories

1574 words - 7 pages . (Adler, Mueller, Laufer & Grekul, 2012). There are many criminology theories that explain why an individual commit a crime. Anomie/stain theory and labelling theory are two important theories in criminology. There are two different kinds of theories, psychological theories and biological theories. Both of those theories share the assumption that such behaviour is caused by some underlying physical or mental condition that separates the criminal

Creation Theories

1792 words - 7 pages Without the bible humans would not be able to depict different theories of creation. The Old and New Testament are not considered in many people, but it is known by all. Theories that have affected different religions are creation, evolution, and mythology. With 6,775,235,700 people walking the earth, every person has his/her personal opinions about the world’s existence. In the book of Genesis, Christian Scholars have described the work of

Personality Theories

809 words - 3 pages Personality TheoriesMost people use the term "personality" to identify the most obvious characteristic of a person, or to refer to a person's social skills. Personality theories try to explain why we think and what we think. Albert Bandura's Social-Learning Theory, Walter Mischel's Cognitive-Affective Theory and Carl Roger's Humanistic Personality Theory suggest reasons that try to explain our overall behavior. These personality theories help

Mot Theories

1124 words - 5 pages motivation itself is intangible issue and can be looked and applied through various theories it was developed various theories and models related to motivational problems through the time. These theories and models varied time to time due the structural changes of firms and overall the essence of economy. For example, in the beginning of XX century, when the rules of classis capitalism dominated managerial level of companies mainly focused on

Sociological theories

1798 words - 7 pages Comment on the three types of sociological theories, explainand argue, based on your library or Internet research, which type oftheory is the most appropriate theory for sociology to adopt.The three general types of sociological theory are positivistic,interpretive and critical theory. In determining which theory is themost appropriate for sociology to adopt, a basic understanding of eachtheory's strengths and weaknesses is necessary. In

Sociological Theories

1731 words - 7 pages Culture refers to spiritual, intellectual and aesthetic development of an individual, group or society. It captures a variety of products and activities that determine and define the way of life of a people. Cultural theories are thus tools that give understanding to values, codes, norms discourses, ideologies and pathologies. Theory offers a model of influence through which culture exerts on social life and social structures. Theories play a

Similar Essays

Theories Essay

965 words - 4 pages In this essay I will compare and contrast nonuniversal theory and the theory of multiple intelligences by using the ENDS of the BEST criterion. I will also explain how both theories inform and complement one another and, how in some ways the theories contradict each other. The nonuniversal theory proposes that development occurs in stages that are universal in sequence but result in nonuniversal levels of expertise. In reaching expertise in any

Learning Theories Essay

685 words - 3 pages . They can learn from their environmental changes. There are some learning theories which have contributed significantly to human development. These learning theories include Social Learning, Classical Conditioning, Operant conditioning and Cognitive Behaviorism. Social Learning Theory According to social learning theory, behavior changes does not rely on a given reinforcement pattern. Social learning uses social argument and element to help

Traits Theories Essay

2227 words - 9 pages Introduction Theories of Personality Human personality is a complex area of study. This is because in different situations, a human being will portray a certain behavior and this may be part of culture that is developed over a long time. There have been diverse observations on explanations regarding human personality. Over the time, theories have been developed attempting to explain this complex human phenomenon. Theories of personality have

Psychological Theories Essay

1749 words - 7 pages Psychological theories PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 7 Running head: PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIESPsychological theoriesWhat we know about humans thought and behavior is due to many psychological theories. Some theories have remained widely excepted throughout the years; others have been rejected; while others have had to adjust to the way that society has changed over the years. All have contributed to the understanding of humans thought and behavior that we