Lifespan development can be defined as the length of time an individual has from birth to death. Life span development explores all the biological, cognitive, psychosocial changes that occur during different times of a person s life (ukask.com 2013).one of these theories. This assignment will be discussing and evaluating two theories and 4 theorists that have studied and written about lifespan development.
One of these is Cognitive development which the building blocks of thought processes together with remembering, problem solving along with decision making from childhood through adolescence to adulthood. Two theorists who wrote about cognitive development are Piaget and vgyotsky.Piaget separated development in four stages: sensor motor, preoperational, operational, and concrete operational. Vgyotsky based his theory of development on the basic notions that children construct knowledge and learning can lead to development, (Slanders.J.2009).Another theory of development is psychoanalytic; this was developed by Freud who used dream interpretations and analysis of resistance. Freud used these to explore repressed or unconscious impulses including internal conflict. Another theorist who wrote about psychoanalytical theory was Erikson who agreed with some of Freud’s theories but disagreed with others. Both theories are based on how every individual develops (Free dictionary.com 2013).
Freud along with Piaget shared a common interest in development that the key to understanding the adult was to understand the child. Erikson’s theory stated childhood is very important within personality development. He accepted many of Freud’s theories including the id. Ego and superego, he also accepted Freud’s theory of infantile sexuality but rejected Freud’s ideas based solely on the basis of sexuality. Erikson felt that personality continued developing after the age of five (Haverford.edu 2013). Erikson called his hypothesis criteria crisis stages, Freud called his psychosexual stages.
Freud`s first stage is oral and covered from birth to 1 year. It is based on feeding, crying, and weaning. The mouth and breast are at the centre of all experience, together with attachment throughout this stage. In any problems with this stage could lead to problem with oral fixation in later life such as thumb sucking and smoking. (Simplypsychology.com 2013). Erikson’s first stage is named trust vs. Mistrust and starts from birth to the age of one, during this stage we start to develop trust and continue doing so throughout life. The care an infant receives determines how the child will view its mother and other individuals. However if care is inconsistent it could instigate a sense of mistrust, fear and suspicion which can lead to a child becoming withdrawn. A sense of trust allows the baby to accept new experiences; the fear of the unknown is recognised as being a part of life (gross 1993). The second stage of is the anal stage; this runs from between the age of 1-2...