Theories of Child Development Essay

1095 words - 4 pages ✓ Expert Reviewed
VIEW DOCUMENT
Preview

Theories abound around how people develop emotionally, intellectually, socially and spiritually. This essay will examine the theories of five leaders on the subject of development.
Jean Piaget believed in four stages of development that were fairly concrete in description (Atherton, 2010).
1. Sensorimotor stage (birth – 2 years old) – Children begin to make sense of the world around them based on their interaction with their physical environment. Reality begins to be defined.
2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7) – Concrete physical stimuli are needed in order for a child to develop new concepts.
3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11) – As a child accumulates experience with the physical world, he/she begins to conceptualize to explain those experiences. Abstract thought is also emerging.
4. Formal operations (beginning at ages 11-15) – Conceptual reasoning is present and the child’s cognitive abilities are similar to an adult’s (Atherton, 2010).

Piaget was firm in his concept of these stages. He was convinced that a person had to progress from one stage to the next, that this was a natural biological process influenced by the environment and experiences. Biology limits the point in time, but the environment determines the quality of development.
Lev Vygotsky stages of development were not defined by age or biology. Social and cultural experiences were the basis for his theory. Consciousness was an end product of social interactions (Kearsley, 1994-2010). The history of the child’s society and his own personal history determine how the child thinks. Language is crucial for development as it is with words that a child conceptualizes and makes sense of the world (Schütz, 2004). A precept of Vygotsky’s theory was the zone of proximal development or ZPD. ZDP is the difference between what a child is able to solve on its own (actual developmental level) and what a child can learn only with the help or experience of another person. “An essential feature of learning is that it awakens a variety of internal developmental processes that are able to operate only when the child is in the action of interacting with people in his environment and in cooperation with his peers” (2004).
Erik Erikson like Piaget had distinct stages of development assigned to specific ages. However Erikson ascribed development even into old age. Eight stages beginning with birth to old age described a conflict that had to be resolved by the person before moving on to the next, termed the epigenetic principle (Boeree, 2006). As each conflict is resolved a person gains strength to move on to a more complex battle. These struggles are inner conflicts revolving around Freud’s theories of ego, i.e. the first stage, birth to age one, trust vs mistrust is the conflict or stage eight, age 50 and beyond, integrity vs despair. As a situation arises a person has two ways of resolution, adaptive or maladaptive (Cramer, Flynn, & LaFave, 1997). This conflict...

Find Another Essay On Theories of Child Development

The Nature Of Child Development Essay

1188 words - 5 pages other hand, human development is appreciated as a gradual process which is considerably influenced by our environment and biological roots. Works Cited Maier ,H.(1978). Three theories of child development:3rd edition. University of Washington ;Harper and Row Publishers, New York, Hagerstown, San Francisco , London. Tanner J.M. and Inhelder B.. (1958). The Childhood Genesis of Sex differences in Behaviour(13-91). Sex Sex differences in...

Three Main Theories Of Child Language Acquisition

1160 words - 5 pages There are three main theories of child language acquisition; Cognitive Theory, Imitation and Positive Reinforcement, and Innateness of Certain Linguistic Features (Linguistics 201). All three theories offer a substantial amount of proof and experiments, but none of them have been proven entirely correct. The search for how children acquire their native language in such a short period of time has been studied for many centuries. In a changing...

Of Good Use Theories Of Human Development

1659 words - 7 pages in my career by creating an environment that children can feel safe in at school. I will look at all possible reasons and/or influences that could be negatively affecting the child and will try to teach the child and family effective ways to help deal with the challenges they face. There are five main theories groups in the field of human development. In each of those main theory groups are many theories from several theorists, all which...

Comparing The Two Theories Of Cognitive Development

1550 words - 6 pages Comparing the Two Theories of Cognitive Development There are three main types of cognitive development. There is Piaget's theory, Vygotsky's theory and the Information processing approach. The two theories that I am going to compare and contrast are Piaget and Vygotsky's theories. There are many differences between these two theories, but there are also many similarities too. Piaget suggests that cognitive...

Child Development And The Process Of Learning

1355 words - 5 pages on children’s long-term negative development. However Hughes (2008) support parents smacking their children as a form of discipline explaining that parents are able to manage and guide children’s behaviour more effectively. Discipline is not the same as positive guidance where as discipline is demanding the child to get to some kind expectations unwillingly (McFarland, Saunders, & Allen, 2008). For instance a child will be told that he or she...

Aftereffect Of Television Viewing On Child Development

915 words - 4 pages will affect children’s health, children’s educational development, children’s cognitive skill and also children’s behaviour. There are many negative health impacts of television watching for children. First of all, children who love to watch television will affect their own health. To begin with, they spend long hours watching television which has a very high probability of damaging children’s eyesight. According to specialists...

The Consequences Of Television On Child Development

2024 words - 8 pages The Effects of Television on Child Development (missing works cited) Our generation has been raised in a technological advanced world and there has been definite controversy over many of these innovations that this new culture has brought. An innovation that has troubled the youth of America for many years is television. Although there is no certainty to eliminate this 'plug-in drug,'; there are many ways to control and monitor your...

The Effects of Socialization on Child Development

811 words - 3 pages When I graduate from the University of Memphis, I want to be able to apply social de-velopment in children developing anxiety disorders while becoming an elementary school teach-er. A child’s exposure to positive socialization and the success of child developmental stages and is what the development of an individual depends on. The following will present the relationship between human development and socialization. Then explain what an...

The Influence of Interactions on Child Development

1533 words - 6 pages , the history and the culture of the society in which a child grows up and the events making up a child’s personal history determine much more than what that child knows or likes. It also determines which mental tools the child will learn and how these tools will shape the child’s mind. Like Piaget, Vygotsky claimed that infants are born with basic abilities for intellectual development. These are called Elementary Mental Functions and include...

Brain Development In Victims Of Child Abuse

1547 words - 6 pages &_userid=400777&md5=b56f7b8e13ccaf122404bcc148bf3926">Developmental traumatology part I: biological stress systems, an article about the effects of stress hormones upon the developing brains of children with post-traumatic stress disorder 3)Development of the Cerebral Cortex: XII. Stress and Brain Development: 1, an article from the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, dealing with the effects of stress hormones and...

Compare And Contrast Two Theories Of Gender Role Development

1505 words - 6 pages Compare and contrast two theories of gender role development A dominant debate in current psychological research is one on gender development. Psychologists try to understand relative importance of social and cognitive factors. Various theories are brought up in this field and in this essay two of the most standard theory in this field are going to be explained. The theories covered in this essay relate to aspects of children’s thinking that...

Other Theories of Child Development Essays

Constructivist Child Development Theories Essay

2772 words - 11 pages . Constructivist Child Development Theories Introduction The constructivist theories of child development were put forward by theorists such as Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, and Maria Montessori. Even though there is a huge difference in the works of these, nevertheless everyone...

Piaget Versus Vygotsky: Child Development--Competing Theories On How Children Develop, Either Individually Or Through Interacting With Other People.

991 words - 4 pages Every adult alive has developed from a simple cognitive to a more advanced one, but accepted theories that explain how this occurs are still at odds with one another. The major disagreements are about whether changes are brought about as primarily a result of the child working out solutions to problems internally, or changes in the individual are the result of negotiations between the child and the external world. Two of the more notable...

Theories Of Development Essay

919 words - 4 pages means of psychological development. Two children have severe anxiety disorders. One is allowed to bring her dog to school with her. The other does not have any coping strategies. The young girl with the dog knows to pet her dog anytime she feels uncomfortable, therefore easing her symptoms of panic. The other child does not know how to calm feelings of panic, therefore going into full blown panic attacks. The more the child gets anxious, the more...

Patterns Of Child Development Essay

1039 words - 4 pages Patterns of Child Development The various aspects of child development encompass physical growth, emotional and psychological changes, and social adjustments. A great many determinants influence patterns of development and change. On the average, a newborn baby weighs 3.4 kg (7.5 lb) and is 53 cm (21 in) long, with the head disproportionately larger than the lower part of the body. As the child grows, increments in height are greatest...