Tom is a three year old little boy. He knows that airplanes have wings and can fly. When he goes to the zoo with his family and he sees an Eagle, he points to it and tells his big sister “airplane”. She calmly tells him that the Eagle is actually a bird. Tom had made a schema about airplanes, and associated the schema with what the bird looked like. He had to come up with a new schema for birds to realize they are two different things.
Toms story is an example of Piagets Cognitive-Development Theory. Piagets theory, people construct their knowledge based on what happens in the environment around them. A schema is a way of thinking of the world, it is a sort of blueprint that people use to think of the world around them. Piagets theory is what would be considered as discontinuous and monopathed. This means that children make connections with the world abruptly, although they may not be accurate depictions; they are comfortable using their imagination. Piagets theory is one path, there is only one way to develop. A common example of developing in one path is that children must crawl before they can walk.
Piagets theory conceptualizes human development by explaining how people change their mental depictions of the world. People create schemas but sometimes people experience disequilibrium. This means that people have to change their schemas around, they do this by either accommodation or assimilation. In both cases, the person modifies their schema to better fit the meanings of their surroundings. Until a person experiences accommodation or assimilation they will experience a feeling a disequilibrium because essentially their thoughts on a matter have been proven wrong in some way.
Piagets theory is a well known theory and is fairly recognized as being accurate in means of psychological development.
Two children have severe anxiety disorders. One is allowed to bring her dog to school with her. The other does not have any coping strategies. The young girl with the dog knows to pet her dog anytime she feels uncomfortable, therefore easing her symptoms of panic. The other child does not know how to calm feelings of panic, therefore going into full blown panic attacks. The more the child gets anxious, the more his peers and teachers also get anxious, adding to the child’s mix of negative feelings.
This is Brofenbrenners Ecological Systems Theory. This theory tells us that development has many different routes, which means it is muli-directional. It is also a continuous way of development, children feel they have to try to understand the adult world in a scientific sort of way and learn slow and steady. Brofenbrenners theory suggests that our environment influences us and we...