Theories Of Psychology Essay

986 words - 4 pages

1. Theories of Multiple Intelligences:
Howard Gardner proposed the theory of multiple intelligences in his book, "Frames of Mind" in 1983 (Smith, 2006). Initially, Gardner spoke of seven intelligences and later added two. The first two are considered fundamental and most revered in the public school system, they are Linguistic intelligence and Logical-Mathematic intelligence. Linguistic intelligence includes the capability to use, speak and learn languages and words. Logical-Mathematic intelligence is the skill of working proficiently with numbers. Musical intelligence is the ability of performing, recognizing, and writing music. Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence is utilizing the mind and the body together to solve problems. Visual-Spatial intelligence recognizes patterns of space. Interpersonal intelligence is the ability of understanding people. Intrapersonal is the ability to understand self. The final two that Gardner added in 1999 are, Naturalist, the ability to observe patterns in the way things are organized and Existentialist, the ability to understand spiritual and philosophical issues. Gardner also claims ?intelligences rarely operate independently?. (Smith, 2006)
Interpersonal intelligence applies best to me because I am a very good listener and I have the ability to identify and respond accordingly to various moods and temperaments. I am often referred to as the peacekeeper or mediator. The feelings of others are foremost in my thoughts and actions. I enjoy contributing to others personal development and well-being. (Smith, 2006)

2. Problem solving:
Algorithm is a systematic approach such as formulas used in math. (Roberts, 2006)
Representative Heuristics or a rule of thumb is when information matches previously determined answers or solutions (Roberts, 2006). As an example, you are given the information that the temperature is 21 degrees and it is snowing outside. When asked what season of the year, you would arrive at the conclusion that it is winter.
Availability Heuristics is when we base a conclusion or decision on the first thing that comes to mind (Roberts, 2006). For example, if you were asked what disease affects cigarette smokers most often? The first thing that comes to our mind is cancer because it is the disease that is spoken of most often in association with cigarettes. However, according to the American Heart Association (2008) heart disease affects cigarette smokers more often than cancer.
Framing is risk aversive problem solving may be beneficial if both positive and negative information is considered. Rigidity is the inclination to rely too heavily on prior experiences. Functional fixedness occurs when one cannot see other uses for common items (Roberts, 2006). For example, you need a bucket to carry water for your flowers, you do not have a bucket but you do have a garbage can, so what do you do? Think outside the box and use the garbage can.
Confirmation bias occurs when we seek out only the...

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