Theories Of Knowledge And Psychological Applications

2914 words - 12 pages

Theories of Knowledge and Psychological Applications

How individuals are able to obtain knowledge is something that
psychologists have studied for a number of years. The ability to store and
retrieve knowledge provides individuals with the propensity to form logical
thought, express emotions and internalize the world around them. In order for a
psychologist to understand the theories of knowledge it is necessary to
investigate the aspects of the theories. In this paper we examine the history ,
the basic construct, the similarities of the theories and how those theories
relate to psychological therapies. History of the theories
     The neural network model attempts to explain that which is known about
the retention and retrieval of knowledge. Neural network models have been
examined for a number of years. In the mid 1940's and 1950's the first of the
network models began to appear. These publications introduced the first models
of neural networks as computing machines, the basic model of a self-organizing
network (Arbib, 1995).
In 1943 McCulloch and Pitts published their model theory ( Arbib, 1995). In
1948 Rashevsky proposed a number of neural network models to explain
psychological phenomena. During this era not enough was known about the brain,
subsequently he was considered ahead of his time. Rashevsky relied heavily upon
complex mathematical equations within his model, consequently many people simply
did not understand his theoretical perspective ( Martindale, 1991). In 1958
Rosenblatt proposed his theory on neural network models which focused on
perception. The theory elicited a great deal of interest; however it was
considered too simple to sufficiently explain all aspects of perception (Arbib,
     As a result of the lack of acceptance, neural network models "fell out
of fashion"(Martindale, 1991, P.12). For a nine year lapse no neural network
model theories were developed. In 1967 the network approach was again examined.
Konorski developed a useful network model that focused primarily on Pavlovian
conditioning as opposed to cognition. Grossberg developed his neural network
theory during the years of 1969, 1980, 1987, and 1988. Grossberg developed a
powerful network theory of the mind but, like the Rashevsky model, Grossberg's
theory was comprised of complex mathematical terms and was therefore extremely
difficult to understand. His neural network models are only now being recognized
as truly revolutionary (Martindale, 1991).
     Many new theorists would enter the field of neural network models, but
it was the work of Rumelhart, Hinton, and McClelland that would simplify the way
we would view such models (Arbib, 1995). It was in 1986 that Rumelhart, Hinton,
and McClelland developed their network model. It was and still is regarded as
one of the most notable network theories. This is true because they...

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