Theories Of Sigmund Freud Essay

1395 words - 6 pages

Theories of Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud was a Viennese doctor who was responsible for the
introduction into the basic principles of psychology. He was born in
1856 and died in 1939 so lived through the Victorian era. He pioneered
the investigation of psychological states through the investigating
the patient's childhood. He believed that the basis of many
psychological problems was sexual. Freud's theories and approaches
were influenced by the ideas and society of his time, nobody in the
Victorian era would have even said the word sex let in lone come up
with some of the theories that Freud did. He was the first person of
his time to come up with theses ideas, and is seen as the founder of
Psychoanalysis.

Freud believed and that people developed in stages. Each stage was
linked to physical development. He believed that one part of the body
would experience excitement due to need called excitation, and then
once need is met the person feels gratification. Then the body would
experience excitation again, this will carry on through out the
persons life, like a circle.

Excitation

Gratification Excitement due to need

Need is meet

Freud proposed that we are driven or motivated by are instinctual
drives. He saw the instinct and sex drive as exerting the most
influence in the early years of life and therefore childhood as a time
of key importance in personal development. Freud proposed that
children are able to receive sexual pleasure from any part of their
bodies, but as they grow older the sexual drive becomes focused upon
different parts of the body. There are five different stages of
development they are; the oral stage, the anal stage, the phallic
stage, the latency stage and the Genital stage.

Stage one the oral stage focuses on the mouth where pleasure is gained
first from sucking and swallowing (the oral passive sub stage)and
later as teeth emerge, from biting and chewing (the oral active sub
stage). This stage is linked to weaning or breastfeeding, the stage is
for babies from birth to a year old.

Freud therefore believed that the early years of development are very
important, as the experiences of childhood shape the structure of the
human personality, he suggested that too much or too little pleasure
at that stage might cause a fixation, causing the person in later life
to indulge in its pleasures. So for someone to fixate at the oral
sucking stage might mean that they become smokers in later life or
will always want something in there mouths like food or drink, or pen
lids and often suck their thumbs they will often be very dependant on
others. They are like this because they did not have the pleasure of
sucking their mothers breast, and so do similar things in later life.

The second stage in a Childs life is at the age of one to three years.
...

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