Theory Complex Interdependence Analysis

974 words - 4 pages

The theory of complex interdependence was created as a reaction to the realist theory. The theory of complex interdependence has many parts but has been compounded into a simple definition of being “the entire intricate range of interactions among modern nation, which has made transnational forces even more important” (49). The ideas of complex interdependence represent a challenge to the realist ideas about national sovereignty because according to realism, the only thing motivating the states is endurance of sovereignty. National sovereignty is the supreme controlling power by which an independent state is governed, and the realists believe that the supreme power in an independent state should be based on its military and economic force. With the complex interdependence theory, the government does not rely as much on military and a power balancing force (hard power), but focuses more on increasing the economic relations with other states in a peaceful manner which decrease the amount of security dilemma that nations face. The idea of national sovereignty is lost in this aspect because with complex interdependence the focus shifts from the survival of one’s own nation state to cooperating with other nations to make better ties in international affairs.
Realists believe that the state is the dominant actor in the international system and that the state can use force to get what it needs. Realists believe that a state’s external relations should be based more cautiously on a basis of military and economic strength, also known as “hard power” (31). Realists are very cynical when it comes to world affairs; instead of seeing nations coming together to work and make peace, they see the unending threat of conflict and war. Realist believes that nations need to maintain strong armies as a means for keeping their enemies on their toes (31). Complex interdependence theory did not think as pessimistically as the realist did. They believed that the states were not the dominant actors, but different groups of communities and races were. One of their main beliefs is that using force for everything was ineffective and that the better option would be to actually talk to the states and to use nonviolent methods. They also believed that there should be no hierarchy of their objectives. Such issues as security and war should not pull precedence to other issues such as economics and environmental issues.
As stated in American Foreign Policy and the Challenges of World Leadership, “The realist, neorealist, and neoclassical realist all strongly believe in the value of a balance of power approach to international affairs as well as believing that the existence of a military equilibrium among nations is essential for peaceful diplomacy to work”(CITATION). When it comes to complex interdependence, theorists believe that with the dwindling use of the military force as a policy instrument and the increase in economic and other forms of interdependence will increase...

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