Joey is in Biology following a procedure given to him by his teacher to come to a desired end result. Meanwhile Caren, a history major, is studying and reviewing a variety of biographies, manuscripts, and diaries to form a lecture about Booker T. Washington. Both individuals are following a process that includes the systemization of facts in order to form knowledge. Therefore, information produced and gained from a system has the potential to become knowledge.
Knowledge is the intersection in which experience, information, and emotional response meet. It is impossible for knowledge to be formed without using all three. Thus, it is necessary to create a system in order for facts to make sense. A body of facts would be useless unless they can be applied to the real world. Facts and ideas only begin to become knowledge when they are related to and used with or against other facts and ideas.
Let's take, for example, my study time. If I study often, then I should receive higher grades. These higher grades would implicate that I know the subject well, but does reciting facts equal knowledge?
This takes us back to Joey. Joey is following a system that is identical to a step-by-step process. However, both the teacher and the student know the outcome. Although Joey is learning how to follow the scientific process, is he gaining knowledge? One could argue that he is; the steps followed will bring him through an empirical system that will lead him to an outcome. It involves the collection of information, cognitive thought, and the experience of following the scientific process. However, one could also argue that there isn't room for error so that when he needs to do an experiment on his own, his lack of experience (and lack of knowledge) will cause him to fail. This is because information may or may not be processed into knowledge depending on the situation.
Think of someone entirely new to biology. How would someone know how the skeletal system works? Reading about it in theory is only one side of the system. If, however, a student takes an existing skeleton...