Theory of modernity is based on the notion of social progress, it implies that all of society, in whatever era they exist and in what region or were located, are involved in a single, all-consuming, the universal process of the ascent of human society from savagery to civilization.
Culture of modernity is defining the development of European civilization for four centuries. It based on the idea of progress and human values, which are now, cherished every European: a democratic political system, economic freedom, professional excellence, autonomy, civil society and legal state.
The French Revolution - perhaps the most powerful shock of the XVIII century - changed the face of France, giving it a modern character. It profoundly affected the fate of many nations: those who were really affected by it, and those that only from a distance watched the scene.
The French Revolution was born out of a break deep feudal-absolutist system. Shaken by multiple crises, the most obvious was the finance crisis, the royal government unsuccessfully attempted to reform. Discontent nobles encroachment on their ancestral privileges and the decline of political influence, the increasing trend in the years 1787-1788 excitement parliaments - the highest judicial institutions of France, which have traditionally been in opposition to the absolutist regime, people's movements generated by hunger and high cost of living - all this has forced Louis XVI to go to convening the States-General, has not met since 1614.
In early societies, the way people identified themselves was usually tied to which religion they were. National identity and community as a concept did not exist because the idea of established area where different people lived but were connected was not thought of yet. The one unifier in Western Europe was being a Christian and the type of Christian you were. As The Age of Enlightenment passed through Europe, these religious identities began to decline due to the development of national ones that were defined by set geographic regions. One of the main characteristics of modernity is the idea of sovereignty which by definition is the supreme and independent power of a state. The first concrete sovereign states came out during the Age of Enlightenment with the French Revolution and its upheavals in its classes as well as its government. The creation of a National Assembly from the members of the Third Estate of France is directly linked to the creation of modern sovereignty and the emergence of an identity free of the traditional social order.
Modernity arose during the Age of Enlightenment because there was great social and political upheaval going around. Ideas of the old were being thrown out in the favor of new and progressive ones. People began to move away from the feudalistic society that had set social orders with the church as the main power to a society with set geographic boundaries with the state as the supreme power and not the...