Theory of Acute Pain Management
Marion Good, PhD, RN, has focused her study, “A Middle-Range Theory of Acute pain Management: Use in Research,” on complementary medicine for pain and stress, acute pain, and stress immunity. The purpose of this theory is to put into practice guidelines for pain management. Good, 1998, noted the need for a balance between medication usage and side effects of pain medications. The theory also promoted patient education related to pain management following surgery and encouraged plan development for acceptable levels of pain management. This theory was developed through deductive reasoning. Chinn & Kramer, 2008, defined deductive reasoning as going from a general concept to a more specific concept. Good, 1998, related that there was a balance between analgesia and side effects in which two outcomes can be deduced: (1) a decrease in pain, and (2) a decrease in side effects. These outcomes can be studied further or more detailed concepts can be deduced from them.
The major concepts deduced from the hypothesis fall under three categories: (1) multimodal intervention, (2) attentive care, and (3) patient participation. Multimodal intervention includes the concepts of potent pain medication, pharmacological adjuvants, and non-pharmacological adjuvants. Attentive care relates to the assessment of pain and side effects and intervention along with reassessments. Patient participation includes goal setting and patient education. The resulting outcome of these three categories working together is the balance between analgesia and side effects.
Potent pain medication contains the aspects of utilizing medications such as morphine or demerol, how the medications are dispensed, and the frequency of administrations. The pharmacological adjuvants concept can be used for comparison of adjuvant usage and non-adjuvant usage. Non-pharmacological adjuvants are non-medicinal elements which could include music, relaxation, breathing techniques, imagery, distraction, and massage (Sylvia, Carol, LeeAnn & MSN, 2011). Assessments of pain and side effects refer to the examination of a patient at regular intervals of time. Intervention and reassessment is based on changes related to previous pain and side effect assessments. Patient education is training individuals on how to manage or prevent pain with medication and activity. Goal setting is designed to aid in maintaining and reducing pain by allowing the patient, nurse, and doctor to work together in order to form a plan of pain management. All concepts work together to promote a balance between analgesia and side effects.
The major concepts of this theory are defined theoretically since the use of these definitions is from a broader theoretic concept. Therefore, an operational concept could be developed from them. There is consistency in the use of these concepts throughout the theory of acute pain management with examples given using the same...