Theory X and Theory Y: Two Theories of Management
Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human motivation. These theories were developed by Douglas McGregor in the 1960s at the MIT Sloan School of Management. Theory X assumes that employees are lazy and will try to avoid work, therefore needing to be closely monitored at all times and a strict management system. Theory Y states that employees are self-motivated and if given a comfortable working environment, can exercise self-control and do productive work. According to this theory, employees will experience a sense of accomplishment and satisfaction if good work is accomplished, therefore leading to commitment. For McGregor, Theory X and Y are not different ends of the same continuum. Rather they are two different continua in themselves. It has been debated upon whether which theory is more fitting to the human attitude towards work. Neither theory can sum up the entirety of employees, and many employees are a mix of the two theories. The employee's attitude towards work depends on the employee's background, morals, and the current emotional state of the employee.
Most managers take a stance on the theories and do their job according to the ideals of one theory. Theory X managers tend to believe that there is always a person at fault when there is a flaw in the company. These managers believe that all employees are out for themselves, do not really want to work, lack discipline, and are only motivated to work because of monetary gain. They will blame employees for things that the employee may not be guilty of, without questioning whether it may be the system, policy, or lack of training that deserves the blame. Theory X managers take it upon themselves to...