Therapeutic Hypothermia: Preventing Damage After Cardiac Arrest

1082 words - 4 pages

Introduction
Hypothermia protocol for the post cardiac arrest patient has been an evidence based practice of this therapy for about a decade now. This intervention, often used in the critical care setting, is now expanding to primary emergency responders as well. This paper will present some of the notable research that has been done on therapeutic hypothermia, and current use of this intervention.
Control studies, animal studies, and case studies have been published related to these medical interventions. Unfortunately, there are still many healthcare providers not using this intervention. Dainty, Scales, Brooks, Needham, Dorian, Ferguson et al. (2011) study states, “observational research shows that therapeutic hypothermia is delivered inconsistently, incompletely, and often with delay.” In addition a survey that same study found, of Canada and U.S. physicians who replied, only 26% used hypothermia in resuscitated patients (p. 2).
Body
Hypothermia protocol is not universally used at all hospitals, but the facilities that do use it have similar methods. Based on two studies done in 2002 the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Task Force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) suggested that “unconscious adult patients with spontaneous circulation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest should be cooled to 32°C to 34°C for 12 to 24 hours when the initial rhythm was ventricular fibrillation (VF)” (Writing Group, Nolan, Morley, Vanden, Hickey, Members of the Advanced Life Support Task Force et al., 2003, p. 118). They also stated it could be beneficial for other rhythms as well. This was the first big step in using hypothermia in the critical care setting. The current protocol still uses that recommendation.
Reducing the body’s temperature decreases cardiac and neurological damage due to ischemia and reperfusion injury. Reperfusion injury is the harmful adverse effects attributed to reestablished circulation (Writing Group et al., 2003). Hypothermia inhibits or reduces normal body functions such as apoptosis and inflammation, and these can often cause additional damage (Torgersen, Bjelland, Klepstad, Kvale, Soreide et al., 2010). Also, by cooling the body to the designated range the metabolic rate slows down and decreases oxygen demand. This allows tissue to avoid ischemia, in particular the brain and heart. The brain is protected in many ways including preserving the blood brain barrier and decreasing harmful free radicals (Wall, 2011).
More recent studies done on animals have been performed in order to manipulate the variables associated with the hypothermia protocol in attempt to solidify the most effective treatment. Although animal studies allow for a more precise scientific method and yield important information, they are not guaranteed to be identical in a human patient. One study involved pigs that underwent a mechanically induced 100% occlusion of the LAD. The results suggested that only early-induced hypothermia,...

Find Another Essay On Therapeutic Hypothermia: Preventing Damage After Cardiac Arrest

Therapeutic Induced Hypothermia Essay

1208 words - 5 pages During clinical this week, the student nurse got the opportunity of an observational experience in a Specialty Care Unit. The student was directed to the Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU) to observe a patient that was critically ill and receiving extensive treatment. The student observed a nurse caring for a patient while administering therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. The patient L.E. is a 73 year old male

Mild Therapeutic Hypothermia Essay

1836 words - 7 pages Introduction Mild Therapeutic Hypothermia to Improve the Neurologic Outcome After Cardiac Arrest written by Michael Holzer, MD (2002) conducted research to determine if mild systemic hypothermia after resuscitation from cardiac arrest resulting from ventricular fibrillation improves neurologic recovery. Cardiac arrest is known to lead to brain ischemia in a short amount of time; by cooling the body the hope is to preserve the brain on a

Drowning & First Aid Response

1122 words - 4 pages water, or when the mouth and/or nostrils become immersed in a liquid, causing suffocation. Death may occur as a result of pathophysiological effects other than simple asphyxiation, such as rapid fluid change and electrolyte balance, or cardiac arrest. (Pounder, 1992) Immersion syndrome is sudden cardiac arrest in cold water. It may be a vagal response coupled with vasoconstriction, which may result in vagal inhibition leading to sudden stoppage of

title

1795 words - 8 pages hypothermia. Resuscitation. 2013;84(10):1310–23. 32. Fugate JE, Wijdicks EFM, Mandrekar J, et al. Predictors of neurologic outcome in hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Ann. Neurol. 2010;68(6):907–14. 33. Arnoldus EP, Lammers GJ. Postanoxic coma: good recovery despite myoclonus status. Ann. Neurol. 1995;38(4):697–8. 34. Datta S, Hart GK, Opdam H, Gutteridge G, Archer J. Post-hypoxic myoclonic status: the prognosis is not always hopeless. Crit. care Resusc

Drowning Safety

708 words - 3 pages /or nostrils become immersed in a liquid, causing suffocation. Death may occur as a result of pathophysiological effects other than simple asphyxiation, such as rapid fluid change and electrolyte balance, or cardiac arrest. (Pounder, 1992) Immersion syndrome is sudden cardiac arrest in cold water. It may be a vagal response coupled with vasoconstriction, which may result in vagal inhibition leading to sudden stoppage of the heart muscle. (Draper

The Effect of Humidified and Heated Carbon Dioxide During Laparoscopic Surgury on Post Operative Pain and Incidence of Hypothermia

3891 words - 16 pages complications such as infection, reduction in the amount of fogging of the optics and a reduction in cardiac arrhythmia incidences. These are all factors affecting the surgery and could lead to potential complications. Further research surrounding these areas should be undertaken, and another literature review performed specifying these areas of concern in relation to humidification of CO2.SUMMARYThe link with pain, hypothermia and adhesion formation in

Weathering Poverty

1254 words - 5 pages one of the ways that weather can play a part in immigrant work. Along with rain preventing the harvest of cotton, migrants would also have to deal with weather extreme that can be very dangerous for ones heath. Some of these would be extreme heat and cold, which could cause stroke, dehydration, multi-organ failure, hypothermia, frostbite, flu or in the worst cases even death. The toll along with the wear and tear that the actual work of

Sudden Cardiac Death

1703 words - 7 pages gets to the scene it will be too late. Sudden cardiac deaths have taken the lives of many professional, college, and high school athletes. What everyone doesn’t know is that cardiac arrests occur more frequently then we know, we just hear about the deaths. Just recently a healthy young boy collapsed because of having a cardiac arrest after making the game winning shot for his basketball team. Although this death was tragic and sudden, doctors

A literature review on patient transport in Intensive Care units.

4856 words - 19 pages intracranial pressure, arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, change in respiratory rate, hypocapnia, hypercapnia and significant hypoxaemia. No transport-related deaths have been reported. In up to one-third of cases mishaps during transport were equipment related. A long-term deterioration of respiratory function was observed in 12% of cases. Patient-related risk indicators were found to be a high Therapeutic Intervention Severity Score, mechanical ventilation

Medical Experiments of WWII Gives information and an ethical view of some Medical Experiments in WWII, including Nazi Hypothermia Tests, and Biological Warfare of the Japanese

1843 words - 7 pages subject of normal core temperature. Some examples would be, a naked unwilling female must hug or lie with a male subject of hypothermia, sexual intercourse was also another experiment. Body-to-body re-warming proved to be not very effective in re-warming the core temperature of a victim of hypothermia.Chemical re-warming also proved to not have a significant effect on the re-warming of hypothermia. Tests included were cardiac and circulatory

Abnormalities in the cardiac cycle.

1763 words - 7 pages the body. Due to the immediate collapse of the cardiovascular system it is a frequent cause of sudden cardiac death. Ventricular Fibrillation often occurs in the presence of significant heart disease, after a heart attack or some other serious injury such as a very severe electric shock. If somebody is lucky enough to be resuscitated from cardiac arrest due to Ventricular Fibrillation, he or she is considered to be at a very high risk of

Similar Essays

Therapeutic Hypothermia Post Cardiac Arrest Essay

984 words - 4 pages Recent studies have shown patients suffering from cardiac arrest are treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia is now recognized as standard therapy in patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) leading to unexpected death 1 in 1500 adults each year in this hi tech world (Zheng et al 2001). Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) may increase survival and reduce the amount of neurologic damage after cardiac arrest. According to the

Theraputic Hypothermia Essay

1939 words - 8 pages States so far, permanent brain damage after cardiopulmonary- cerebral resuscitation causes many delayed deaths and is seen in about 10to 30 percent of survivors of out-of hospital cardiac arrest. The fact that 2 studies yielded similar results makes the important conclusions even more compelling. The rationale for the use of therapeutic hypothermia is complex. Spontaneous uncontrolled hypothermia start with potential deleterious

Hypothermia Therapy Essay

1508 words - 7 pages heart begins beating again does not mean that ischemia has stopped. One study shows that while 17 -25% of cardiac arrest patients survived to hospital admission, only 4-9% (Bernard) left the hospital neurologically intact. Some research has shown, however, that therapeutic hypothermia can help increase the odds of these patients regaining 100% of neurological function by the time that they leave the hospital. The actual medical use of

Hypothermia Therapy For Myocardial Infarction Essay

2639 words - 11 pages be used to improve existing treatment protocols for this patient populations, design education programs for nurses to follow, and provide more research data on this subject for future research studies. Despite the demonstrated benefits of therapeutic hypothermia treatment in recent studies, patients eligible for this treatment after cardiac arrest do not receive it. The lack of knowledge about hypothermia treatment by some intensive care nurses