Genetic modification is currently at the forefront of modern science and is being utilised in various fields such as medicine, agriculture and industry. Genetically Modified or transgenic organisms are organisms that have been genetically altered in a specific way for a particular purpose. It is now possible for scientists to exchange genes from one species of organism to another. This process is performed when certain characteristics of one organism are desired in another organism of a different species. For example a pig could be genetically engineered so that it will produce human insulin for those suffering from diabetes. Also, it is seen that it could be possible to cure certain allergies or diseases by replacing the genes responsible for causing the allergy or disease in one organism with that of a gene belonging to an organism that has a resistance to the specific allergen.
Great medical discoveries pertaining to genetic modification are being made regularly and scientists are discovering new ways in which genetic engineering could be used to update certain medical procedures in the future. Complicated procedures such as organ transplantation have been made more successful with the use of genetic modification. Lab-grown bladders, windpipes, blood vessels and skin are some examples of organic matter that have been successfully grown with human cells and transplanted into human patients. The demand that the human population has on donor organs far exceeds the number of organs available for transplant. Genetic modification is the solution to this problem, in that, the advances being made in therapeutic medicine will save millions of lives in the future. Now that it is possible to alter the genes of an organism and to grow organs out of human cells, one can make an organism resistant or even immune to certain diseases and drastically reduce the possibility of implant rejection.
The field of genetic modification is vast and highly intriguing. I feel that genetic modification is the future of therapeutic medicine and have chosen this research topic to discover more about transgenic organisms and the advances they are bringing to the medical sector. Another reason I have for choosing this topic is to see how far therapeutic medicine has advanced over the years and how many more lives are being saved as a result of development in this sector.
The aim of this research is to determine whether the use of transgenic organisms is essential to the advancement of therapeutic medicine.
2. Review of Literature
2.1) Transgenic Animals: Their Benefits To Human Welfare (E.T Margawati, 2003, Article)
The article Transgenic Animals: Their Benefits To Human Welfare offers a very useful definition of genetically modified organisms or transgenic organisms. The three methods of creating a transgenic animal are also explained in detail. These three methods are DNA Microinjection, Retrovirus-Mediated Gene Transfer and Embryonic Stem...