What About The Children? Are There Long Term Consequences To Earlier And Greater Exposure To Noise?

1872 words - 7 pages

Harmful noises are everywhere. “The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) reports that approximately 30 million Americans are exposed to daily noise levels that will likely lead to hearing loss” (Daniel, 2007, p. 226). Excessive noise exposure can lead to permanent hearing loss, tinnitus, poor communication abilities, and reduced self-esteem; however, it can be prevented in many situations. This paper will discuss how much noise exposure can occur before it becomes hazardous, the long-term effects of noise exposure at an early age, and the primary reasons why preventable socioacousis occurs.
The amount of damage resulting from noise exposure depends on the intensity level of the noise in relation to the length of time exposed to the noise. According to NIOSH, sound levels that exceed a time weighted average of 85 decibels dB(A) over an 8-hour period of time are considered dangerous. It is recommended that exposure time be decreased by half for every 3 dB increase in intensity that exceeds 85 dB because noise exposure increases with time and intensity (NIOSH, 1998). Impulse sounds such as gun fires or firecrackers can exceed 150 dB(A) and cause immediate, irreversible, sensorineural hearing loss (Axelsson & Jerson, 1985). Most people are unaware of the decibel system and how much 85 dB equates to, but according to the article, “How loud is too loud? Minimize noise exposure to protect your hearing”, if someone has to yell to be heard, it is probably loud enough to cause hearing damage, (Johnson, 2011).
To further evaluate the effects of noise exposure Kujawa and Liberman conducted a study to determine the long-term effects of noise exposure in relation age. They presenting the same amount of 8–16 kHz octave-band noise for 2 hours, measured at 100 dB SPL to a group of mice that varied in age from 4 to 124 weeks. Results indicated two types of permanent hearing loss that occurred. The first was a more immediate response of damaged stereocillia measured by the hearing loss that remained after the temporary threshold shift was resolved and the second was the acquired hearing loss that gradually increased over many years after the exposure. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) results showed that the permanent threshold shift measured at two weeks post expose varied drastically among the young mice (4-8 weeks old) which shifted up to 40 dB SPL and old mice (16- 124 weeks) which did not show a permanent threshold shift at two weeks post exposure (Kujawa and Liberman, 2004).
The long term side effects were evaluated among the different age groups and exposure ages were compared to a control group that was unexposed to excessive noise in order to isolate the damage caused from noise exposure from the effects of hearing loss due to age. The results indicated a correlation between the age when exposed to noise and resulting amount of hearing loss. As exposure age decreased,...

Find Another Essay On What about the Children? Are There Long-Term Consequences to Earlier and Greater Exposure to Noise?

Causes and Long-Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect

2521 words - 10 pages emotional problems, and adults who were victims (as the children are).      The are numerous effects that children suffer from being abused, both short term, and long term. Abused children suffer from many social and emotional problems in their childhood, stemming from feelings of guilt and remorse. In a study of more than 50 children, ages 2 to 13 years of age, examiners agreed that these abused children consistently demonstrated nine

Pregnant Women's Temporary Satisfaction and Long Term Consequences

2097 words - 9 pages help and guidance to boost their confidence back up. The abuse of drugs during pregnancy also forms the question “Why give birth to a child if their health and living condition does not concern you?” Not only is the decision to use drugs during pregnancy extremely inconsiderate of the mother-to-be but it is also irresponsible. If you decide to have a child, be sure to take good care of them. There are so many long term effects that a child could

There are no children Here

1353 words - 6 pages he could write the book about them. Their mother was eccentric about the idea. But she said one phrase, "But you know, there are no children here. They've seen too much to be children. " Kotlowitz writes this book I believe for all of us to understand the hardships of the inner-city, and to inform us what is happening in America right now. He says that his hope is, "that the book about the children would make us all hear, that it would make us

There Are No Children Here

1048 words - 4 pages There Are No Children Here Alex Kotlowitz was a freelance journalist. In 1985 a friend came to him and asked him to write a text for a photo essay he was doing on (children living in poverty) for a Chicago magazine. That is when he met the Rivers brothers, Lafeyette, age ten, and Pharoah age seven. He spent only a few hours with them interviewing for the photo essay. Lafeyette had an impact on Kotlowitz. When asked what he wanted to be

"the cuban missile crisis" 2500 words detailed analysis of the cuban missile crisis 1962, including long and short term causes, the crisis itself, and the long and short term consequences

2492 words - 10 pages the brink of nuclear catastrophe. The motives behind the USSR's decision to deploy the missiles in the first place are long and complex, as are the effects and repercussions of the move. The Crisis itself lasted fourteen days, from the 15th of October until the 28th of October 1962, and the entire time "nuclear catastrophe was hanging by a thread...and we weren't counting days or hours, but minutes" (Soviet Army Chief of Operations Anatoly

The Effect of Gangs in There Are No Children Here

986 words - 4 pages (Kennedy 10). To many observers, it would seem that the black community would only be helped by the removal of the violent gangs that terrorize them.   For whatever reason improvements are being stalled, something needs to be done about gang activity in America's inner cities. In the Epilogue of There Are No Children Here, Kotlowitz notes that Lafeyette recently was forced to call an ambulance for a friend who had been shot in the stomach

There Are No Children Here Essays: Style

603 words - 2 pages Style of There Are No Children Here There Are No Children Here  In Kotlowitz's description of the harsh realities of the Chicago projects, three stylistic elements stand out: his precise narration, his bluntness, and his questionable objectivity. These three elements blend to form a unique style that is particularly well-suited for There Are No Children Here. If there is one thing on which critics agree when discussing this book, it

Long term affects of Child Abuse are worse

1024 words - 5 pages Prevention Center). “In 2007, Stanford University researchers found that children suffering post-traumatic stress disorder and exposure to severe trauma actually have smaller brains” (San Francisco Child Abuse Prevention Center). When the brain shrinks, the adult now has to try and regain their initial intelligence. Children that are abused are 10% more likely to become a delinquent (San Francisco Child Abuse Prevention Center). An abused child is

No Hope for the Children in There Are No Children Here

1323 words - 5 pages been slashed, and for the family to move from the projects. He hoped that God would take his family somewhere better than the existing circumstance. Alex Kotlowitz does a tremendous job portraying the effect that living in governmental housing has on poverty-stricken people. He focuses on children that are in this predicament in his book, THERE ARE NO CHILDREN HERE. When most think of childhood, they think of memories and friends playing in

In this paper there are five questions asked and answered about the Stanford Experiment conducted in 1971. The questions are about the ethics of the experiment

2135 words - 9 pages it was too late. He sent some of his prisoners to the hospital and home from the experiment because emotions were running wild and they could not control themselves. I think this experiment was way out of line...How are norms/roles a part of this study? Please give specific examples of norms/roles to which subjects adhered, and discuss what the 'consequences' for independence would have been for the prisoners and the guards. What aspect of the

"Where Bias Begins" Basically talks about how children are developing bias at a young age, and what is being done about it

1239 words - 5 pages and schools are trying different ways to eradicate negative bias opinions because there are many children being harmed by this behaviour. This attaches to the emotional features of the essay, as mentioned before, in the stories of the young children. These stories put the reader in a sentimental frame of mind, allowing the reader to construct their own opinions about the issue from an emotional perspective. Those opinions may be formed by also

Similar Essays

Affecting Emotions In The Workplace And Long Term Consequences

553 words - 3 pages Affecting Emotions in the Workplace and Long Term Consequences Employees, particularly in service industries, find themselves increasingly called upon to display positive emotions in the workplace. Ashford and Humphrey (1993) define the act of displaying an emotion according to a display rule as emotional labor (p. 90). According to Grandey (2003), research has shown that positive affective displays, or expressing positive emotions, in service

What Are Debentures, Mortgages And Long Term Loans?

563 words - 3 pages will have to be paid, whatever the level of profit. This makes them less risky than ordinary shares. For the firm they can be a good way of raising money because they are predictable. It can plan ahead the cash requirement for paying the interest, and knows exactly when they will have to be redeemed.MortgagesA mortgage is also a form of long-term loan. However, it will usually tend to be on property or some other fixed asset. It will be what is

All The Basics There Are To Know About Rivers

1137 words - 5 pages discharge rate determines the water volume flowing via a specific point of the river per unit time. The unit assigned to this measure is cubic metres per second. The uses of rivers are enormous depending on their locality, flow rate, and water volume. Large scale irrigation and many production processes depend on river water. The rivers form a crucial part of the hydrological cycle that determines the climate of a given region. Additionally

What Are The Consequences Of The Suppression Of The Imagination Of The Gradgrind Children? Refers To "In Hard Times" By Dickens

2086 words - 8 pages circus ring. When they where caught Mr Gradgrind immediately told them off, later asking 'what can you possibly want to know about circus shows?" This implies that children shouldn't see the circus as it doesn't teach you anything. From this we can assume that that the children studying the Gradgrind system of education can't do the many things that are enjoyable in their lives as it would not teach them anything. This view is not healthy towards