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Thinking In Terms Of Maslow's Hierarchy Of Need And Vroom's Expectancy Theory Answer The Following Question: Does Pay Motivate?

1889 words - 8 pages

Motivation is not a 'one-size-fits-all' topic and often the role of personality differences, and in particular an individuals 'thinking style', is often overlooked. Everyone has their own personal motivators, intrinsic and extrinsic, two general themes seem to run through most of the research I have completed, expectancy and equity, these theories argue that whatever the remuneration employees need to be fairly treated, fairly rewarded and where performance related pay comes into discussion, that all employees should be in possession of the ability to perform the task for the performance-related pay to be effective. However, Victor Vroom (1), who based his studies on extensive 500 research investigations, concludes that there is no all-embracing motivational theory. Handy (2) suggests that the research for the definitive solution to the motivation problem, only a part of which is a fair rate of pay, is another endless quest for the Holy Grail in organisational theory. Porter and Lawler (4) emphasised that the expectancy theory is just a framework of requirements for motivational strategies. Equity and expectancy theory do not provide managers with a direct recommendation, but with a model within which performance-related pay schemes can be operated willingly and successfullyMaslow's hierarchy of needs is one of the earliest theories, (1) and translates into the "What's in it for me?" theory; Maslow suggested five levels of need:1. Physiological: biological needs such as food and drink2. Safety/security: a secure and non-threatening environment3. Belongingness: social needs, a sense of attachment and affiliation4. Esteem: both self-esteem and esteem from others5. Self-actualisation: the need for self-fulfilment, achieving potential.Maslow suggests that once a level of need was satisfied, it no longer acted as a motivator and the next level of need had to be brought into play in order to motivate the individual. According to Maslow the level of need we all strive for is Self Actualisation, but he also suggests that none of us achieve this. Maslow's theory is popular because it is simple to understand and seems to be common sense; however it has been proved to have several flaws and to me this theory does not offer any practical advice to managers in order to motivate their teams.The fact is, motivating people at work is a very complex issue and, to really be able to use motivation techniques effectively, leaders, and managers need to understand the principles behind some of the leading theories in this area.Money as a RewardDepending upon how it is handled, money can either be a great motivator or a great de-motivator (5). Financial rewards can be cash incentives, raises, or bonuses. Cash incentives can motivate employees to meet a difficult goal, but they could also possibly cause employees to compete against each other instead of working together (6) Other flaws money has as a motivator is that its impact is short-lived, it becomes an expected...

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