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This Essay Analyzes Manipulation In Verbal Communication. It Cites Various Studies Done In The Late 80's And 90's On The Types Of Verbal Deception.

2223 words - 9 pages

UNDERSTANDING DECEPTIVE MESSAGES IN VERBAL DISCOURSEConor L. MurphyUniversity of PortlandThis study serves to attain a better understanding of deception types and the nature of verbal manipulation. In this report analysis of various research was used to come to a consensus on the different types of verbal deception and how they affect apparent message competence and manipulative qualities. Analysis confirms that the Information Manipulation Theory is the best indicator of deception types in Western Discourse. Through careful evaluation, evidence seems to suggest that manipulations of quality, quantity, relation, and manner all significantly influence perceived message competence and deceptiveness. The violation of quality was found to be the most deceptive.Two major avenues of study have risen in deception research. One looks at a persons ability to detect deceptive messages. The other inquires what makes up a deceptive message. While this article touches on both, it focuses on the latter issue. When looking at types of message deceit, this study sought to find what types of messages are involved in manipulation and what types of are perceived as being the most manipulative. Manipulation in communication is defined as messages intended to mislead receivers. When examining manipulation in communication a guideline must be created to label the different types of deception. This essay will examine different manipulation literature and come to a consensus on what verbal communication manipulation entails.The Co-operative PrincipalThis article presupposes Paul H. Grice's Co-operative principal when examining manipulation. Understanding of western speech and dissertation, including the Information Manipulation Theory, is based off the guidelines of discourse set forth by Grice. He projected a set of broad assumptions to which all conversationalists must follow in order to be perceived as proficient. His basic assumption was that any discourse, whether written or spoken, is a joint effort. Both the speaker and receiver must follow certain syntactic, pragmatic, and semantic rules in order to communicate effectively. Speaker and receiver must co-operate. Grice's Co-operative Principle consists of four maxims: quality, quantity, relevance, and manner.The quantity maxim explains that the speaker has to include all the information that the receiver requires to understand the message. The speaker cannot leave out a crucial piece of information or the addressee will not be clear on what is being said. The other half of the maxim explains that a person should not present more information than is needed. It can be problematic to be too informative because knowledgeable people become bored with redundant information.Manner simply means that the speaker should avoid redundancies and unnecessary information. If the speaker is redundant on a consistent basis than the receiver will lose interest in the discourse. However, a speaker being too brief or concise can lead...

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