This Essay Called "Germany Between 1918 And 1933" Desribes Whathappened In Germany During This Horrible Time.

2410 words - 10 pages

Germany between 1918 and 1933Novemberrevolution and armisticeIt all startet with the revolution in November 1918. As preliminary remark, a revolution is defined as a "fundamental change in political organization; especially : the overthrow or renunciation of one government or ruler and the substitution of another by the governed" (Mirriam-Webster ). So, what effects did the particular revolution of November 1918 have, and how did it change Germany?The impulse for this revolution were mutinying sailors of the German navy who refused to execute an order that appeared to be senseless and life-threatening (29 October). On 4 November 1918, the German regimen offered Wilson armistice as a result of the revolution. Basis for this offer were Wilson's so-called Fourteen Points that he presented to Congress in January 1918 as an outline for a moderate peace in Europe. He wrote it "[t]o make world save for democracy," as he said (Schlapp). The Points asked for economic and political equality of all nations, reorganization of Europe along lines of nationality, and limitation of armor in all countries. Moreover, Germany had to give up Alsace-Lorraine and they had to pay reparations.The emperor Wilhelm II resigned on November 9. One day later, the Rat der Volksbeauftragten took over all government expenditures. This institution which in English means Council of People's Representatives is defined as the "German provisional revolutionary government established on 10 November 1918, with the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD) and Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (USPD) each providing three members with Friedrich Ebert and Hugo Haase as joint chairmen"(International Institute of Social History Archives). Eventually, the armistice took place on 11 November 1918.Treaty of VersaillesIn January 1919 the peace negotiations started: the victorious nations met in Paris to decide for a settlement. Germany only received a draft agreement in May 1919. Germany signed the so-called Treaty of Versailles on 28 June 1919. The treaty - containing 440 articles - asked for disarmement of the German army, demolition of their heavy weapons, and payment of reparations. As another consequence Germany had to give up several important territories and all of its colonies. Germany was forced to sign the treaty and has never had any chance for input. This true fact caused the treaty to resemble only a dictate accept rather than a peace settlement. Thus, the Germans never seemed to be willing to accept it.Article 231 was certainly the most controversial part of the treaty. This article gave Germany the sole responsibility for World War I. It is also known as the "War Guilt Clause". Commander in chief Hindenburg did not want to accept this responsibility, so he argued that the only reason why the country lost the war were its internal disturbances. He blamed the Socialists and Democrats for this loss because they supposedly stabbed the Germany army in the...

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