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This Essay Is About The Different Types Of Volcanoes And How They Are Made. Includes A Works Cited Page.

1192 words - 5 pages

A volcano is an opening in the earth's surface through which lava, hot gases, and rock fragments erupt. These openings are formed when melted rock from deep in the earth build up around the opening, and form mountains. When these openings erupt they shoot out huge fiery clouds over the mountain, and spew glowing rivers of melted lava down their sides. In some eruptions, red-hot ash and cinders shoot out the mountaintop, and large chunks of hot rock are blasted high into the air. Only a few spectacular eruptions are so violent that they blown the mountain apart.People for thousands of years have been fascinated by the spectacle of volcanic eruptions and terrified of their power. Some of these eruptions have caused some of the worst disasters in history, by wiping out entire towns and killing thousands of people. The word volcano comes from the term Vulcan, which was a name the ancient Romans gave their god of fire. Volcanoes played a role in the religious life of some of these people, and they believed that god lived beneath a volcanic island off the Italian coast.Powerful forces within in the earth's surface cause the formation of volcanoes. Volcanoes begin as magma, deep inside the earth, which is caused by the extreme heat within the earth's interior. Magma develops from 15 to 100 miles beneath the earth's surface, where it is melted and releases gas. Gradually the magma rises toward the earth's surface because it is lighter than the solid rock around it. As the magma rises, it melts gaps in the surrounding rock and forms a large chamber two miles from the surface.An eruption takes place when the gas-filled magma under ground is under great pressure from the solid rock around it and this pressure causes the magma to blast, or melt a conduit in a weakened part of the rock. The magma moves through the conduit toward the surface and when it reaches the surface, the gas and magma are released. When magma and gas reach the surface, they get blown out an opening called the central went. This is the main site where most of the volcanic eruption takes place. As the magma gradually builds up over time, it forms a volcanic mountain or volcano.Once a volcano is formed, many different situations can occur. Most of the magma in further eruptions does not reach the surface through the central vent. Most of the magma is sent out through conduit walls, and form small channels of lava, while some just stay below the surface walls. Only a small fraction of the time will the volcano blow out of its main vent again.There are three basic kinds of materials that are erupted from a volcano, lava, rock fragments, and gas. This material depends chiefly on how sticky or how fluidly a volcano's magma is. Lava is the name for magma, which has been released upon the earth's surface. It is red hot and has a temperature of more than 2012 degrees Fahrenheit. Highly fluid lava flows more rapidly while sticky lave flows slowly. As lava cools it forms many different formations,...

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