This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

This Essay Discusses Why William Of Ockham Can Be Considered As The Initiator Of The "Modern Way" Of Doing Philosophy

1680 words - 7 pages

Why was William of Ockham considered to be the initiator of the "modern way" of doing philosophy?William if Ockham was a philosopher and theologian born is southern England (1285). He joined the Franciscans and eventually became prominent in that religious order. Ockham studied at Oxford University and went on to teach theology there. The tradition that he was Duns Scotus' pupil was probably correct, as his influence can be seen in Ockham's writings. In 1324, Pope John XXII summoned him to Avignon, France, to answer charges of heresy. Ockham remained in Avignon for four years. In 1328, he fled to the protection of Louis of Bavaria, who was the Holy Roman Emperor and an enemy of the pope. Ockham remained in Munich until his death (1347).It was in the 14th century that philosophy began to disintegrate, this was due to many factors, such as the public scandals of the Church, the 100 years war, and the Black Death. One mark of the destructive forces of the Church was the revival of nominalism, for which William of Ockham is mainly responsible.NominalismThe great revival of philosophical and theological study, which the thirteenth century witnessed, was conditioned by the influence of both Aristotle and Plato. St Augustine agrees with Plato's account of the universals: that they are forms and exist in their own spiritual realm, only known to the intellect and not the senses. Thomas Aquinas, on the other hand, disagreed with Augustine and Plato, developing the "shared attribution" realism of Aristotle. Universals, for Augustine, are essences which do not exist without being in the world, but which may be arrived at without a supposed existence.William of Ockham takes an alternative approach called nominalism. He asserts that "no universal is a subject existing outside of the mind", maintaining that abstract objects do not exist in any real sense, but are simply general words that we apply to a collection of things. Thus, there exists no such thing as blueness, but only individual blue things (or particulars). He claims that the object and the universal are two distinct existences with an argument that goes as follows: If the universal 'humanity' were an entity distinct from a particular individual and at the same time part of its essence, it would be in a number of different places at the same time. What is worse, it would be in Judas and Christ simultaneously. Most of Ockham's criticisms against universals are variations on the theme that a single distinct entity appearing in a multiplicity of individual things is a contradiction in terms; if there are as many universals as there are individuals this would mean the denial of universals, there would be no common nature. Extreme nominalism, which Ockham rejects, goes a step further and argues that general terms (such as blueness) are the only things that two given objects have in common.One of Ockham's arguments for nominalism is based upon a principle of simplicity, known as the law of parsimony or...

Find Another Essay On This essay discusses why William of Ockham can be considered as the initiator of the "modern way" of doing philosophy

This essay discusses the origin of the Young Offenders Act and compares it with the Juvenille Delinquents act, which was the first version of the modern Young Offenders act. (Canada)

2218 words - 9 pages . The Act replaced the only other law regarding youth crime that had existed in Canada, that of the Juvenile Delinquents Act. The Juvenile Delinquents Act originated in 1908, when it was first deemed necessary for children who were believed to be guilty of a crime to be treated differently than adult offenders. Before this, children between the ages of seven and fourteen would go through the same process as an adult when they were shown to be

Derk Bodde discusses the process of "euhemerization" and presents some anecdotes in which Confucius discusses ancient beings. Discuss this process and why these anecdotes are good examples

568 words - 2 pages euhemerization. Close studies of traditional history reveal that many of the prominent figures from the period before the Zhou Dynasty (1122 B.C. to 256 B.C) were not actual human beings. This leads us to believe that other historical figures in traditional history may not have actually lived at one point in time. This concept can be better defined by focusing on a couple of anecdotes in which Confucius attempted to explain to his disciples.People

Modern Writing - This essay describes how modern authors such as Ernest Hemmingway, Robert Frost, and Anne Sexton. This essay describes how dark and depressing modern writing can be

611 words - 2 pages tells the reader that she feels she doesn't have her own personality, likes, dislikes, or opinions. This is the attitude eventually led her to suicide. Sexton put her heart and soul into her poems and used her writing not to entertain others but to tell others how she viewed her role in life.The miserable verses of modernist poets put into words the most depressing emotions of loneliness, desolation, and emptiness a soul could feel. When writing these passages, the poets poured out their souls onto paper and, in the words of Prufrock "threw their nerves on a screen." Modernist writing can be recognized as depressing descriptions of the most distressing aspects of life.

"The Merchant of Venice" What is Shylock shown as? Why is he made to seem this way? Is he good or Evil?

2518 words - 10 pages In William Shakespeare's play, "The Merchant Of Venice", the character of Shylock is portrayed mainly as an evil Jew. He is based on the typical stereotype of a Jew from Shakespeare's time. They were despised and mocked in most places. However at times Shylock can be pitied. Shylock's evil is emphasised with the repetition of "the evil Jew", which is said by several other characters throughout the play. This is well used as it constantly

This essay is about why gas prices change. It includes background information on petroleum as well as the way the gas economy works

1324 words - 5 pages Why Do Gas Prices Change?When thinking of modern technology, it is hard to think of anything that does not require some type of oil to power it. As a society, we are completely dependent on oil. Oil was formed millions of years from the remains of animals and plants in a marine environment. Layers of mud covered the remains while heat and pressure helped turn the remains into crude oil, or petroleum. The word "petroleum" means "rock oil" or "oil

How Moholy-Nagy made photography manifestly modern. This essay discusses the ways that Moholy used and thought about photography differently

922 words - 4 pages a visionary for the society and he provides forms that convey ideas necessary for social advance and reform. As he aged, he viewed art on increasingly social and revolutionary terms. This is can be seen by comparing his later work to his first works. The subject matter in his early work in militarism may be considered traditional and not controversial for the time; however, most of his later work was focused on what was considered modern subjects

Why the 1920s in America was considered the "modern era" and "modernism."

1063 words - 4 pages QUESTIONS FROM INSTRUCTOR:. Many historians cite the 1920s as the decade in which America entered the "modern era." Given the myriad labels attached to this decade, this essay focuses on the broader context of all those movements under the umbrella term "modernism."First, what is modernism and why did it apply to the 1920s (as opposed to earlier decades)? What ideologies or beliefs had changed by the 1920s that qualified this decade as "modern

Why is understanding the service user's point of view important in health care, and what can be done to take this point of view into account? Discuss with reference to diabetes care

1043 words - 4 pages more common among South Asians living in Britain than in the general population.This study suggests that there is a poor level of diabetes knowledge within the South Asian patients. This could be due to a number of factors, as the study explained:-Language barriers;-Different diet due to the culture being different;-Lack of physical exercise due to cultural taboos about exposing the bodies to the opposite gender and time constraints.This study

Why does Steinbeck begin in this way? How is Steinbeck’s opening different from the beginning of ‘The Old Man at the Bridge'?

729 words - 3 pages How does Steinbeck begin his novella (short novel)?How would you describe the opening? What are the effects of Steinbeck's choices?Why does Steinbeck begin in this way? How is Steinbeck's opening different from the beginning of 'The Old Man at the Bridge' or the synopsis above?What is being suggested about the place Lennie and George find themselves in?Steinbeck begins 'Of Mice and Men' (OMAM) with a vividly detailed physical description of the

Physical Therapy in the 21st Century: Why are we doing this?

2007 words - 8 pages heavily on the knowledge of others so it is very important that today’s PTs and PTAs are knowledgeable in their field. This knowledge will allow them to gain the trust of this older generation so they can be properly educated on their physical needs and why they need physical therapy to heal from injuries. Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a prime example of physical impairments for this age group. “Exercise therapy programs for knee OA traditionally have

Alcoholics Anonumous. This essay tells all about AA. It goes into great detail of how it was founded and why it was founded. It even tell about the different ways it can help people

2005 words - 8 pages . In this type of meetings the members of A.A. share their stories,their problems with alcohol, what brought them there, and how their life hasmodified since attending A.A. The other type of open meeting is discussionmeetings. A member discusses briefly their experiences with alcohol, and thenleads a discussion on recovery or another alcohol related problem brought up bysomeone at the meeting. Closed discussion meetings are the same as

Similar Essays

A Text Can Be Considered From Many Points Of View And In Many Different Ways. Appropriation Is One Of The Ways Of Doing This

2507 words - 10 pages The statement a text can be considered from many points of view and in many different ways can be proved through the study of the novel "Catcher in the Rye" by J D Salinger and the film "Igby Goes Down "directed by Burr Sterrs. The novel "Catcher in the Rye" relates, in first person, the experiences of a seventeen year old boy Holden Caulfield in the days following his expulsion from his preparatory school. The appropriation of this novel is a

Songs Can Be Considered A Form Of Modern Day Poetry

1502 words - 6 pages the form of someone else or with the same person. This then could lead to the theory that this song was written to be compatible with everything that is loved i.e. a new job, new friend etc and that it often deteriorates through familiarity. Such depth in a song compares to the depth of a poem in terms of the hidden meanings and imagery. I believe that songs can be considered a form of modern day poetry as they often effectively use poetic techniques such as repetition, imagery, contrasting themes, effective word choice and climaxes. The two songs that I have discussed clearly possess and demonstrate these qualities and how effective they are.

This Essay Discusses Why Handel Was A Baroque Musician As Opposed To An Enlightened Or Classical Musician In The Form Of A Letter

1270 words - 5 pages Handel played quite the opposite. As I have stated many times, Messiah and many of his songs discuss the life of Christ, while during the Enlightenment, everybody was trying to get away from religion and the government, making their own decisions for themselves. Handel's music seems to be unruly, which is not a characteristic of a classical song. George Frederic Handel can do fine on his own, without the club, for his song Messiah and many others

The Insanity Of Hamlet Can Be Portrayed As An Act Of Will To Revenge His Father's Death. William Shakespeare Captures This Through Madness Vs. Melancholia

1067 words - 4 pages madness and melancholia range to different heights through the use of actions, movement and language. But this cannot prove whether or not Hamlet was mad, sane or suffering from a profound emotional depression. Hamlet's idea of assembling a staged play to defy the guilt set inside his uncle Claudius was an intelligent act. Further more, Hamlet's executed madness is shown to be none the less played with lines such as "I am but mad north-north-west