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This Is A Research Paper On Gregor Mendel And His Contributions To Science.

1062 words - 4 pages

Gregor Johann Mendel was born on July 22, 1822 to peasant parents in a small agrarian town in Czechoslovakia. During his childhood he worked as a gardener, and as a young man attended the Olmutz Philosophical Institute. In 1843 he entered a Augustinian monastery in Brno, Czechoslovakia.He was later sent to the University of Vienna to study. By both his professors at University and his colleagues at the monastery, Mendel was inspired to study variance in plants. He commenced his study in his monastery's experimental garden. Between 1856 and 1863 Mendel cultivated and tested some 28,000 pea plants. His experiments brought forth two generalizations which later became known as Mendel's Laws of Heredity. Ironically, when Mendel's paper was published on 1866, it had little impact. It wasn't until the early 20th century that the enormity of his ideas was realized.During Mendel's lifetime, Brno was the capital of the province of Moravia and part of the powerful Austrian-Hungarian Empire. The abbey was a renowned center of learning when Mendel arrived there as a novice in 1843. Today the abbey is a historic site. The abbey's library is especially impressive and compromises some 30,000 books dating to Mendel's time. Though, it is presently closed to the public, there are rare tours of it. Other items on display include tools for teaching botany, various scientific instruments, and a striking photograph of Mendel and his fellow friars.Mendel's hypothesis essentially has four parts. The first states that "Alternative versions of genes account for variations in inherited characters." In a nutshell, this is the concept of alleles. Alleles are different versions of genes that impart the same characteristic. Each human has a gene that controls height, but there are variations among these genes in accordance with the specific height the gene "codes" for. The second, "For each character, an organism inherits two genes, one from each parent", alludes to the fact that when somatic cells are produced from two gametes, one allele comes from the mother, one from the father. These alleles may be the same (true-breeding organisms), or different (hybrids). The third law, in relation to the second, declares that, "If the two alleles differ, then one, the dominant allele, is fully expressed in the organism's appearance; the other, the recessive allele, has no noticeable effect on the organism's appearance." "The two genes for each character segregate during gamete production," is the last part of Mendel's generalization. This references meiosis when the chromosome count is changed from the diploid number to the haploid number. The genes are sorted into separate gametes, ensuring variation.The most important principle of Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment is that the emergence of one trait will not effect the emergence of another. While his experiments mixing one trait always resulted in a 3:1 ratio between dominant and recessive phenotypes, his experiments with two...

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