This Is A A+ Essay On Lazers.

1119 words - 4 pages

There are only about 100 different kinds of atoms in the entire universe. Everything we see is made up of these 100 atoms in an unlimited number of combinations. They continuously vibrate, move and rotate. Even the atoms that make up the chairs that we sit in are moving around in class. Atoms can be in "different states of excitation" (Bertolotti 48) or they can have different energies. If we apply a lot of energy to an atom, it can leave what is called the ground-state energy level and go to an excited level. The level of excitation depends on the amount of energy that is applied to the atom by heat, light, or electricity. An atom consists of a nucleus (containing the protons and neutrons) and an electron cloud. The electrons in this cloud "circle the nucleus in many different orbits" (Bertolotti 51). In other words, if we apply some heat to an atom, we might expect that some of the electrons in the lower energy orbital would shift to higher energy orbitals further away from the nucleus. Once an electron moves to a higher-energy orbit, it eventually wants to return to the ground state. When it does, it releases its energy as a photon, a particle of light. You see atoms releasing energy as photons all the time. For example, when the wires in a toaster turns bright red, the red color is caused by atoms, excited by heat, releasing red photons. When you see a picture on a TV, what you are seeing is atoms, excited by high-speed electrons, emitting different colors of light. Anything that produces light, such as fluorescent lights and bulbs, does it through the "action of electrons changing orbits and releasing photons" (Bertolotti 51). A laser is a device that controls the way energized atoms release photons that had ever been seen before 1960. Theodore H. Maiman of United States mounted a "specially prepared a rod of ruby inside a powerful flash lamp" (Hecht) similar to the type used for high-speed photography. The laser age was born. Within a very short time, in addition to many more solid state materials, laser action was demonstrated in liquids, semiconductor crystals, and other forms. Although there are many types of lasers, all have certain essential features. In a laser, the "lasing medium is pumped to get the atoms into an excited state" (Bertolotti 65). Usually, very intense flashes of light or "electrical discharges pump the lasing medium and create a large collection of excited-state atoms" (Bertolotti 71). It is necessary to have a large collection of atoms in the excited state for the laser to work efficiently. In general, the atoms are excited to a level that is two or three levels above the ground state. This increases the degree of population inversion. The population inversion is the number of atoms in the excited state versus the ground state. Once the lasing medium is pumped, it contains a collection of atoms with some electrons sitting in excited levels. The excited electrons have energies greater than the more relaxed electrons....

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